The couple had a son, Madiba "Thembi" , in February , and a daughter, Makaziwe, in Their daughter died of meningitis as an infant. They welcomed another son, Makgatho, in , and a second daughter, named Makaziwe after her late sister, in Following the general elections of in which the white National Party claimed victory, the party's first official act was to establish apartheid.
With this act, the long-held, haphazard system of segregation in South Africa became a formal, institutionalized policy, supported by laws and regulations. The new policy would even determine, by race, which parts of town each group could live in. Blacks and whites were to be separated from each other in all aspects of life, including public transportation, in theaters and restaurants, and even on beaches.
Mandela completed his law studies in and, with partner Oliver Tambo, opened the first black law practice in Johannesburg. The practice was busy from the start. Clients included Africans who suffered the injustices of racism, such as seizure of property by whites and beatings by the police. Despite facing hostility from white judges and lawyers, Mandela was a successful attorney. He had a dramatic, impassioned style in the courtroom. During the s, Mandela became more actively involved with the protest movement. In June , the ANC, along with Indians and "colored" biracial people—two other groups also targeted by discriminatory laws—began a period of nonviolent protest known as the "Defiance Campaign.
The campaign lasted six months, with cities and towns throughout South Africa participating. Volunteers defied the laws by entering areas meant for whites only. Several thousand were arrested in that six-month time, including Mandela and other ANC leaders. He and the other members of the group were found guilty of "statutory communism" and sentenced to nine months of hard labor, but the sentence was suspended.
The government twice "banned" Mandela, meaning that he could not attend public meetings, or even family gatherings, because of his involvement in the ANC.
His banning lasted two years. Mandela, along with others on the executive committee of the ANC, drew up the Freedom Charter in June and presented it during a special meeting called the Congress of the People. The charter called for equal rights for all, regardless of race, and the ability of all citizens to vote, own land, and hold decent-paying jobs.
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In essence, the charter called for a non-racial South Africa. Months after the charter was presented, police raided the homes of hundreds of members of the ANC and arrested them. Mandela and others were charged with high treason. They were released to await a trial date. Mandela's marriage to Evelyn suffered from the strain of his long absences; they divorced in after 13 years of marriage. Through work, Mandela met Winnie Madikizela, a social worker who had sought his legal advice. They married in June , just months before Mandela's trial began in August. Mandela was 39 years old, Winnie only The trial would last three years; during that time, Winnie gave birth to two daughters, Zenani and Zindziswa.
The trial, whose venue was changed to Pretoria, moved at a snail's pace. The preliminary arraignment alone took a year; the actual trial didn't start until August Charges were dropped against all but 30 of the accused.
Short Biography Nelson Mandela — Write Spirit
Then, on March 21, , the trial was interrupted by a national crisis. In early March, another anti-apartheid group, the Pan African Congress PAC had held large demonstrations protesting strict "pass laws," which required Africans to carry identification papers with them at all times in order to be able to travel throughout the country.
During one such protest in Sharpeville, police had opened fire on unarmed protestors, killing 69, and wounding more than The shocking incident, which was universally condemned, was called the Sharpeville Massacre. Mandela and other ANC leaders called for a national day of mourning, along with a stay at home strike. Hundreds of thousands participated in a mostly peaceful demonstration, but some rioting erupted. The South African government declared a national state of emergency and martial law was enacted. The treason trial resumed on April 25, and lasted until March 29, To the surprise of many, the court dropped charges against all of the defendants, citing a lack of evidence proving that the defendants had planned to violently overthrow the government.
For many, it was cause for celebration, but Nelson Mandela had no time to celebrate. He was about to enter into a new—and dangerous—chapter in his life. Prior to the verdict, the banned ANC had held an illegal meeting and decided that if Mandela was acquitted, he would go underground after the trial. He would operate clandestinely to give speeches and gather support for the liberation movement. In accordance with the ANC plan, Mandela became a fugitive directly after the trial. He went into hiding at the first of several safe houses, most of them located in the Johannesburg area.
Mandela stayed on the move, knowing that the police were looking everywhere for him. Venturing out only at night, when he felt safest, Mandela dressed in disguises, such as a chauffeur or a chef. He made unannounced appearances, giving speeches at places that were presumed safe, and also made radio broadcasts. The press took to calling him "the Black Pimpernel," after the title character in the novel The Scarlet Pimpernel. In October , Mandela moved to a farm in Rivonia, outside of Johannesburg. He was safe for a time there and could even enjoy visits from Winnie and their daughters.
In response to the government's increasingly violent treatment of protestors, Mandela developed a new arm of the ANC—a military unit that he named "Spear of the Nation," known also as MK. The MK would operate using a strategy of sabotage, targeting military installations, power facilities, and transportation links. Its goal was to damage property of the state, but not to harm individuals. The MK's first attack came in December , when they bombed an electric power station and empty government offices in Johannesburg. Weeks later, another set of bombings were carried out. White South Africans were startled into the realization that they could no longer take their safety for granted.
In January , Mandela, who had never in his life been out of South Africa, was smuggled out of the country to attend a Pan-African conference. He hoped to get financial and military support from other African nations, but was not successful. In Ethiopia, Mandela received training in how to fire a gun and how to build small explosives.
After 16 months on the run, Mandela was captured on August 5, , when the car he was driving was overtaken by police. He was arrested on charges of leaving the country illegally and inciting a strike. Mandela was elected national volunteer-in-chief of the Defiance Campaign.
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He travelled the country organising resistance to discriminatory legislation. He was given a suspended sentence for his part in the campaign. Shortly afterwards a banning order confined him to Johannesburg for six months. During this period he formulated the "M Plan", in terms of which ANC branches were broken down into underground cells. By Mandela and Tambo had opened the first black legal firm in the country, and Mandela was both Transvaal president of the ANC and deputy national president.
Biography of Nelson Mandela
In the 'fifties, after being forced through constant bannings to resign officially from the ANC, Mandela analysed the Bantustan policy as a political swindle. He predicted mass removals, political persecutions and police terror. For the second half of the 'fifties, he was one of the accused in the Treason Trial. With Duma Nokwe, he conducted the defense. When the ANC was banned after the Sharpeville massacre in , he was detained until when he went underground to lead a campaign for a new national convention.
Under his leadership it launched a campaign of sabotage against government and economic installations. In Mandela left the country for military training in Algeria and to arrange training for other MK members. On his return he was arrested for leaving the country illegally and for incitement to strike. He conducted his own defense. He was convicted and jailed for five years in November While serving his sentence, he was charged, in the Rivonia trial, with sabotage and sentenced to life imprisonment.
A decade before being imprisoned, Mandela had spoken out against the introduction of Bantu Education, recommending that community activists "make every home, every shack or rickety structure a centre of learning". Robben Island, where he was imprisoned, became a centre for learning, and Mandela was a central figure in the organised political education classes.
In prison Mandela never compromised his political principles and was always a source of strength for the other prisoners. During the 'seventies he refused the offer of a remission of sentence if he recognised Transkei and settled there. In the 'eighties he again rejected PW Botha's offer of freedom if he renounced violence.
On April 27, , he was made the first President of South Africa elected in a fully represented democratic election. Mandela was also the first black President of his country, South Africa. Mandela was born in Mvezo , South Africa to a Thembu royal family. His government focused on throwing out the legacy of apartheid by ending racism , poverty , inequality , and on improving racial understanding in South Africa. Politically a believer in socialism , he served as the President of the African National Congress ANC from to and adopted new Constitution of South African in that prohibits all discrimination, based on language , religion , handicap and sexual orientation , not only on racism.
He is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata "Father". Mandela was described as a hero, and his actions gave thousands of people hope. Mandela was sick for several years during his retirement. He was hospitalized in late summer of from a continuous lung infection. He was a member of the Thembu royal family.
Mandela's father died when he was twelve. He was the first member of his family to go to a school. He wanted to free South Africa without violence, but the government started killing and hurting protesters. A trial was later held and became known as the Rivonia Trial. Mandela was on trial because of his involvement in sabotage and violence in In , he was let out of Victor Verster Prison after He left prison after de Klerk removed a ban on the African National Congress.
He ordered Mandela's release.
Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial
Mandela won the general election in April His inauguration was in Pretoria on 10 May Many people around the world saw his inauguration on television. The event had guests, including world leaders from different backgrounds.
http://evitlt.relogika.ru/wp-content/floert/en-iyi-arkadalk-siteleri-uygulamas.php Mandela was the first South African President elected in a completely democratic election. In keeping with earlier promises, de Klerk became first Deputy President, while Thabo Mbeki was chosen second. Although Mbeki had not been his first choice for President, Mandela soon trusted Mbeki throughout his presidency. This allowed Mbeki to organize policy details. Mandela moved into the presidential office at Tuynhuys in Cape Town. He would settle into the nearby Westbrooke Manor. Westbrooke was renamed Genadendal. He faced many illness at age Although having energy, he felt left out and lonely.
This resulted in strong judgment from ANC anti-capitalists. Although in favor of freedom of the press , Mandela was important of much of the country's media because it was owned and run by many middle-class whites. Mandela became known for his use of Batik shirts , known as Madiba shirts , even on normal events. Mandela gave his farewell speech on 29 March , after which he retired. He won the Nobel Peace Prize for his leadership for his anti-apartheid activism in Mandela was married three times and has six children. He had seventeen grandchildren ,  and a growing number of great-grandchildren.
Mandela married Evelyn Ntoko Mase in October They had two children. Evelyn died in They had two daughters. The couple filed for separation in They divorced in She was the widow of Samora Machel. Mandela personally supported him during his impeachment trial in In June , Mandela announced that he was retiring from public life.
Mandela said "Don't call me, I will call you". On 27 March , Mandela was hospitalized in Pretoria from a lung infection. It was reported on 28 March that he was responding well to treatment. On 26 June, it was announced that Mandela was put on life-support. Many South Africans thought that Mandela died overnight on 26 June after he was removed from his life support. CNN also reported that Mandela died, but later fixed the report soon afterwards.
Mandela died on 5 December at his home at Houghton Estate , Johannesburg from complications of a respiratory tract infection , aged On 6 December, Zuma announced a national mourning for ten days. Mandela's body lay in state from 11 to 13 December at the Union Buildings in Pretoria. A state funeral was held on Sunday 15 December in Qunu. On 28 June Mandela's family were arguing about where to bury Mandela. This made Mandela the first non-British person to be honored at Westminster Abbey.
Mandela has been portrayed in movies and television.
By the time of his death, Mandela had come to be widely considered "the father of the nation" within South Africa. Margaret Thatcher attracted international attention for describing the ANC as "a typical terrorist organization" in