Human genus, races, ethnic groups in a common complex of generical psycho-physiological attributes -. A detailed philosophical and sociological analysis of the theoretical backgrounds and sources of this model is presented here Semashko, In this model, all components are necessary and sufficient for being and cognition. All of them are observable and observing. It is impossible to exclude a single element from this model, but there is nothing to add for the extremely simple coverage of the surrounding world in the first, most general for all people, approximation.
Their reality does not require special evidence, they are available to everyone as an observer. Deviations and fluctuations around these values, as well as the pursuit to them as the highest and unattainable ideals - this is the fate of all existences, all transient particulars, including individuals. Therefore, this model, while preserving all the viable diversity of the universe and society, is acceptable to virtually all people without exception, regardless of their intellectual characteristics and religious preferences, and even more so from subjective caprices and individualistic whims.
The "space" of the life of society and humanity as a kind is limited to periods of its natural occurrence about a million years ago and its disappearance, which is lost in the fog of the future tense. Each of the components of the worldview model is an object and subject of endless human knowledge. The eternal cognitive problems begin with attempts to penetrate and understand the internal structure and existential laws of each of the four fundamental components.
A full sweep of the structural model in its epistemological part, for simplicity, is take out into the appendix of this book p. Their common substantial unity is constitute by the spheres of being, society, human and cognition, therefore it is spheral. The epistemologies in the history of philosophy was as much as the philosophers. TT is organized by its paired categorical attributes, which constitute its epistemological platform and the methodological introduction of any of its single uses by any subject for the knowledge of any thing in it. Categorical duplex is the internal mechanism of self-organization and the self-limitation of TT, when each of its attributes is limited by its other attribute, which is inseparable from it.
Each person and each researcher consciously or intuitively limits the methodology of his knowledge to a multitude of those or other spheres and the categorical duplexes reflecting them. The harmony of the spheres and their parts is the central attribute of TT. We recognize this definition, formulated at the beginning of the 20th century, summarizing all the previous development of philosophical thought and knowledge of humanity. It expresses the sole basis of life and the source of the development of being at all its levels from the smallest particles to the all-embracing universe.
Their "family" includes the following concepts of harmony: measure, proportion, equilibrium, balance, consistency, coherence, conformity, nonviolence, sustainability, beauty, connectedness, congruence, consentaneity and many others. Harmony as a process is always carried out through the overcoming of continuously arising spontaneous disharmonies and disproportions between constantly changing parts at all levels.
Harmony is the source of life and its stability of any phenomenon, and disharmony is the source of its withering away, instability and non-viability. Harmony and disharmony constitute the inner duplex subordinate to harmony. The part and the whole the integrity of the spheres and all their parts constitute the inner boundary of harmony, subordinate to it. This TT cut shows the fundamental quality of self-similarity, fractality Mandelbrot, of the spheral whole and its various parts or their spheral fractality, which is vividly expressed and clearly illustrated by the spheral resource matrices in sociology and statistics of TT.
They can deviate from the harmony of system-forming spheral components of the object and generate its internal, partial and transient disharmony, in overcoming of which is the internal viability and stability of the object. Any absolutization and exclusivity of any part and any attributes is deadly and destructive. Any deviation from harmony is the path to death and the source of pathology, sin and self-destruction, leading to the death of the first parts, and then the whole. This trend is overcome either spontaneously or through the knowledge of the laws of harmony of parts and their integrity.
This is a defining quality of the sphere, fundamentally distinguishing it from all its private, temporary and transient constituent elements, the natural death of each of which and their updating never leads to the destruction of the sphere and the holistic object, but rather serves as a necessary way for the long existence of the spheres and composed them objects. Therefore, social sphericity is a necessary attribute of TT. The sociological origins and characteristics of the societal spheres will be disclosed in the relevant part of the TT. Nevertheless, even more than 2. With regard to social reality, TT is inseparable from the recognition of four equally necessary and sufficient societal spheres, constant for all social phenomena at all levels.
The stability of the spheres is ensured by the variability and continuous change of their parts as stochastic elements. The TT within the framework of social reality and the knowledge of society, highlighting its equally necessary and sufficient four constant spheres, distinguishes between them producing and derived structures.
The producing structure of any society is its spheral societal structure, i. Parts of spherons - partons - are historically transient, temporary and stochastic, entropic. Partons are the inner boundary of spherons, their mediation and explanation. The outer boundary of the spherons is their infrastructures, i. Each spheron, creating its own sphere within the noosphere, creates it as its own infrastructure, using the resources of other spheres and their spherons. The harmony of spherons ensures the life of society and its viable order, which is constantly violated by the ruling partons and their dominant elites.
They, in turn, are overcome by new, more harmonious partons, their communities and elites.
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This is an endless process. Spherons are the key strategic and central attribute of TT, its key category that expresses the fundamental actors of non-violent life of a person and society, the actors of their peace and harmony. He firmly emphasizes: "Varna has nothing to do with caste. It is evolving scientifically in TT.
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It accumulates the full potential of intellectual energy and the epistemological advantages of this type of thinking. It is the spherons that make up the "substantial" Einstein difference of TT from traditional thinking. Spherons are the TT "substance". It crowns the column of the emperor Ashoka in Sarnath in the middle of the III century BC in the place where Buddha Gautama first taught four-dimensional, tetradic dharma substance, law of life of early Buddhism Wikipedia.
Gandhi: Young Nation Builder (Childhood of World Figures)
It expresses the oldest epistemological intuition of the spheres and spherons of humanity. Spherons are a source of non-violence Ahimca , which is excluded by the entire TT attribute system. Gandhi repeatedly emphasizes this , Chapter So long as he continues to be a social being, he cannot but participate in the Himsa that the very existence of society involves. Even manslaughter may be necessary in certain cases. Anyone who dispatches this lunatic will earn the gratitude of the community and be regarded a benevolent man.
Without spherons, they do not exist. Without them, it is impossible to justify violence in cases of protection of life and non-violence from the deadly threat. Without them, there is no scientific understanding of the determining priority role of non-violence and the secondary, subordinate and extremely limited role of violence in cases of preservation of life and non-violence.
However, the initial mutual nesting of social spheres determines their different levels and makes TT hierarchical. It reflects the integrity of social objects in their multi-level hierarchy. Network and level hierarchical attributes of TT are relative. They do not exclude, but complement each other. It is provided with a visual scheme matrix, drawing, table, diagram, etc. In this process of the logical unfolding of an object, its necessary rational explanation is reached, which defines the rationality of TT as a necessary attribute, inseparable from sensual clarity.
The visibility of TT is provided by modern network and system intelligent design in the planning and transformation processes of holistic large-scale objects of social reality Owen, We use it in our book to design Gandhi's spheral non-violence, i. TT is a scientific, rational-sensual thinking, all the provisions of which correspond to either rigorous scientific empirical and statistical facts, or irrefutable mathematical evidence, or the experience of thousand-year truths of religion and common sense.
TT includes and is in harmony with all the proven results of traditional thinking, synthesizing them into itself, as well as with recognized centuries-old tradition of religious dogma. TT includes all traditional sciences, except those parts that do not meet the requirements of scientific nature.
Science is always innovative, always updated, and if it is not innovative, not updated, then it is not science, but faith. TT is a scientific thinking, but it is ready to accept, incorporate and integrate into itself any new idea and hypothesis, if it does not contradict its attributes and scientific requirements, primarily facts and statistics. The TT innovativeness does not exclude, but retains all the traditional cognitive achievements of humanity and world religions in harmony with them. This was well demonstrated by 14 years of work in the GHA collective consciousness, which created 8 books and 68 peacemaking projects that integrated the intellectual efforts and contributions of hundreds of their co-authors from dozens of countries and cultures.
This is the thinking of a new era of Gandhian non-violence in the history of humankind, which was launched by Gandhi in the 20th century, and its implementation begins in the 21st century by the GHA through 70 years after his death.
Structural model of TT epistemology in system design. So, the synopsis of the tetranet thinking epistemology in its seven structural categorical blocks is expressed as follows:. Global Peace. General characteristics of TT. The system of the proposed 7 complexes of categorical duplexes of TT epistemology is expressed visually in Scheme-2 in the Structural Model. This system is infinitely diverse in its methodological application and excludes any "only true" use of it, which is imposed and forcibly dictated by traditional monistic methodologies.
In TT there is no single rigid complete matrix of thinking. To this system design of the tetranet thinking the GHA went through several preliminary stages of its comprehension and attempts at its systemic expression, which we briefly list here:. They were supplemented and detailed in 68 GHA projects. The list of previous versions of the TT system expression illustrates its internal dynamics, continuous development and freedom from the ossification of traditional ideologies. TT considers and uses all its attributes in a single multidimensional holistic and harmonious system with the limitations of each of them in the corresponding internal and external duplex.
The TT historical dynamics. The fundamental difference between tetranet thinking and traditional thinking is not the movement of thought from parts to the whole, but from the whole, which is always fundamental and essential, to the harmony of its four equally necessary and sufficient spheres uniting transient and disharmonious parts.
TT does not exclude, if necessary, the movement of thoughts in the opposite direction in its framework, i.
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A similar vector of thinking is fundamentally important for the globalized state of humanity in the 21st century, for its survival through disarmament and liberation from militarism from the harmony of spheres and spherons. Tetranet thinking, for all its fundamental differences from traditional thinking, does not reject its proven paradigms, but includes, complements and systematizes them.
Here we set a more modest, but no less important task to uncover in this scientific paradigm the deepest socio-genetic sources of non-violence in the unity of its attributes. It will be a new historical era of human non-violence with a new non-violent thinking and a new non-violent world order without wars. The philosophical substantiation and detailed unfolding of the TT epistemology are presented in the whole set of our works listed in the bibliography, therefore we do not repeat them here. Sociological analysis, development and explanation of this holistic structural model as a TT methodology are presented in its axioms below.
Several preliminary explanatory definitions. Other new categories are defined below. The sociocybernetic paradigm of TT as a sociological part of its methodology is based and grows out of Tetrasociology or Third Order Sociocybernetics of spheres and spherons - societal clusters of societies , which integrate the first two Semashko, a. The first axiom TT. PIOT resources are substantially different in their nature, qualities and laws of life, which determines the substantial difference in the technologies, structures, processes, spheres and spherons of their production.
They are not interchangeable. This is their infinite variety within the framework of the finite, four-dimensional and constant, spheral diversity of PIOT. The defining productive resource among them is people. They are united in terms of employment in spheres in spherons. The second axiom. It was formulated by A. These are the PDEC processes. Smith, Ricardo, Marx, Keynes, Maturana, etc. The third axiom. These are spheres: Social, or Sociosphere; Informational or Infosphere; Organizational or Orgsphere and Technical economic, exciting ecology or Technoecosphere, for simplicity - Technosphere.
These are SIOT spheres. The same authors as in 1, 2 axioms and many others authors. The fourth axiom. They constitute four equally necessary and sufficient spheral classes, called Spherons for brevity and for distinguishing from all other classes and groups belonging to them.
Spherons are: Sociospheron; Infospheron; Orgspheron; Technospheron. Gandhi, Parsons, Maturana, Giddens, Semashko, and others. The fifth axiom. Mutual inclusion. They constitute its genome and genetic code, which is preserved in all social changes and transformations. The measure of the spheral harmony of an integral social system determines the measure of its genetic viability and sustainability.
The sixth axiom. Spheral statistics begin with the statistics of the spherons themselves at all levels from the family to humanity as a whole. Its definition: four social spheres resources POTS produced by the corresponding four spherons in the corresponding four production spheres, combining the corresponding four processes: production, distribution, exchange and consumption are common and constant for all societies in all their transformations and at all levels societal sociocybernetic genome.
It is a sociocybernetic, because it is an integral non-linear system of direct and inverse, regulating, stochastic cybernetic interactions within the framework of a single self-organizing structural harmony Soroko, of spheres and spherons of social production of any form and any level. The nonlinear, stochastic swarm and thermodynamic nature of spherons in the genetics of global peace is disclosed here Afanasyeva, Its driving energy, productive force, motor and heart are spherons, which ensure the preservation of its genetic structural harmony and the development of its infinite forms in social evolution.
Therefore, SOCIONOME is the genome of global and social non-violence, their genetic code, which remains constant in all the diversity of its endless sociocultural forms of the human historical evolution. Spherons and their statistics are inseparable from each other as two sides of the same coin of a single innovative social knowledge of non-violence in the 21st century.
Here we briefly formulate the methodology of spherons spheral statistics in order not to repeat it in each from their statistical research below. The basic matrix of spheral indices of 4x41 size is:. Its general description is briefly presented below. In the methodology of spheral statistics, there are two mutually complementary types and levels of statistics: traditional and spheral.
Each of them is connected with its own, necessary logic of knowledge and its own, necessary paradigm of thinking. Two fundamental and complementary vectors of their interaction and navigation strategies correspond to these opposite but complementary logic of cognition. The SS vector classifies compresses, organizes and focuses the infinite and chaotic space of empirical indices and their meanings.
The dignity of each of them is formed in the context and content of their own logic and paradigm of thinking. The main advantage of the TS is its connection with reality, with the historical context and all of its features, details, pros and cons in various parts of the infinite social world of humanity. TS is formed and lives in the empirical logic of knowledge and in the paradigm of partial thinking. SS is formed and lives in the theoretical logic of knowledge and in the paradigm of holistic thinking. Only at the level of the SS, the sources and laws of non-violence, global peace, social equality, fraternity, justice, unity, prosperity, liberation from all social pathologies, prosperity and happiness of all nations become clear.
Traditional statistics TS as a science has been developing since , having covered a great evolutionary path of empirical development in each of the countries for almost four centuries. With its undoubted need, public utility and virtues, it has a number of fundamental flaws that call it into question in the well-known popular expression: "There are three types of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics. The TS, by virtue of its attributes, is in many ways arbitrary, subjective, and amenable to all sorts of unfair manipulations, which gives rise to reasonable doubts about its objectivity and reliability.
But it began to realize, pose and partially solve this problem since , the first international statistical congress in Brussels , leaving it fundamentally intractable in its empirical methodology and retaining its insurmountable fragmentation between its branch segments: labor statistics, population statistics, agricultural statistics, health statistics, etc. This fragmentation of the TS is institutionalized at the global level by relevant international organizations and UN departments.
Since there is no better statistics, they use it, trying to somehow limit, compensate and damp its defects. In contrast to the TS, the new SS is democratic, as it is simple in its logic and transparency, so it is available to the people. In the general methodological sense, the SS serves as a metalanguage and metalinguistics in relation to the object language of linguistics of the TS.
More details about the emergence of SS more than 40 years ago, its first steps, as well as the shortcomings of the TS and the relationship of composition and decomposition of indices of two statistics are discussed in the book of and later [Semashko, ; ; ]. The above briefly presents the fundamental logical foundations of the SS in the form of its axioms and base fractal matrix, and below its more detailed description.
The foundation of spheral statistics is a basic matrix of spheral indices PIOT, which is capable of almost infinite scanning in the system of detailing fractal matrices. The units of measurement of spheral indices can be generalized natural units or their units of cost, time, and energy. Spheral statistics of spherons people is limited to natural units of population, for example: millions of people. It was established above that any society, including the global society, in statics is expressed by the sum of all its PIOT resources:.
For the production of each of the PIOT resources, an appropriate complex of their parts is necessary. This pattern is expressed by a 4x4 base matrix of indices above. In its pure form, the base matrix of PIOT spheral resources and their indices of 4x4 dimension is:. All its indices are integrated into spheral indices, are classified by it in the spheral logic and are ordered in the sociocybernetic system of the structural social genome. The strings of a spheral matrix express the outputs of the corresponding PIOT production spheres as their products, and their columns express the inputs of the corresponding production spheres that use PIOT as resources.
This generating algorithm expresses the principle of "all in all. He introduced the mathematical concept of fractals: "A fractal is a structure consisting of parts that are in some sense similar to the whole" Mandelbrot, This is the TT theoretical conclusion, which is confirmed by the real statistics of dozens of countries below.
The employment of spherons is discussed in more detail in paragraph 1. Employment of people is their universal life characteristic from birth to death. All the lifetime of people is production employment of those or other resources of society, including and above all themselves. In the framework of the multidimensional topology of people's life employment, its two principal clusters are distinguished:.
The term self-production autopoiesis was first introduced by Umberto Maturana and Francisco Varela for theoretical biology to describe the self-reproduction of living cells. In , it was rethought in the sociology of Niklas Luhmann to characterize human communication as the main element of the social system. As a rule, it is formally established by the norms of labor activity of the society.
The working or economically active population employed in all spheres, which is exhausted by four spherons, i. From Pw group, the part of the active population that works in the sociosphere denotes by index P1w. Why are non-performing Pn not allocated to a special spheron? Spheral indices, which are used to express spherons and their dynamic trends in time are defined as follows in the table:.
Working population in the branches of Sociosphere and who constitute the Spheron-1 second part. In total, the table contains 8 spheral indices, of which 5 are basic in red , and 3 are intermediate, calculated in green. The measure of spherons by private attributes can vary in a wide range of their statistical equilibrium and structural harmony.
Going beyond this range creates various social disharmonies, failures, crises, pathologies, local conflicts and wars. For example, robotization of the technosphere, reducing the number of its spheron, provides an increase in the number of intangible non-material spherons.
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This is the general employment trend of the future, as reflected by spheral statistics. No other branch or national statistics have such a fundamental advantage. A typical pattern of statistical research of spherons for a certain social object humanity, region, country, district, city, enterprise, school, university, etc. Spheral Indices. In total, Table-2 contains 28 indicators, of which 8 are spheral, summing up 20 traditional indices if necessary, their number can be increased.
Other explanatory and detailed notes together with the simplest two-step algorithm for filling this table, accessible to any schoolchild who is proficient in arithmetic, Semashko, a. This process is endless, as the system of these indices is endless. Therefore, the calculations of the number of spherons at the first, basic level are rough, which are subsequently refined at subsequent, deeper levels of their integrity.
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This group is insignificant in number; therefore, the error in its number does not exceed the permissible norm of statistical error. Its other parts relating to other resources should be formed in the corresponding statistical studies, which are beyond the scope of our study of spherons. Therefore, we do not touch them here - this is the subject of future research. If the initial statistical base of traditional statistics is full of errors that make up the TS Augean stables for almost four centuries, then we cannot demand absolute accuracy from the spheral statistics derived from it.
In the Spherons typical table used the classifier of economic activity of the EU in ? The names of such indices vary in national statistics. In the tables of the spherons of each country it is necessary to use the names of the indices of national statistics so that they can be found in the national databases.
The TT methodology for the first time opens up the possibility for social and humanitarian knowledge and sciences to emerge from more than a century of stagnation, depression, crisis, and backwardness from natural, technical, and military sciences, which, unfortunately, brought humanity to eco- and genocide by militaristic efforts and priorities of the West. Peace and nonviolence have never been the civilizational values and priorities of the West, with rare national exceptions of peacefulness.
Therefore, the crisis of the humanities is natural for the West. It is overcome by the TM scientific revolution of the humanities with their fundamental discovery of spherons as the "non-violence law" of Gandhi. Holistic scientific images of the Universe will always remain transient hypotheses that continuously replace each other in the history of natural science. Other forms of biological and social life, besides earthly, are unknown to science. Maturana discovers their commonality in the genetic structures of autopoiesis, which are socially embodied in the structural harmony of nonviolent spherons.
Its intensive and wide-scale development in all branches of social knowledge requires an WASS, free from the pressure of both traditional scientific institutions and the oppressive tutelage of general scientific Academies, in which social and humanitarian disciplines are marginalized and left in the back of financial and scientific stagnation.
The creation of WASS will be a breakthrough of socio-humanitarian thinking and science from age-old stagnation and crisis. TT gives a second life to Gandhi's non-violence, revealing its social origins and is capable of mastering and using this "greatest force of humanity", providing both TT and the socio-humanities with a natural title of "Gandhian Sciences and Thinking. However, despite this, we are convinced that this trend cannot be infinite and it will soon exhaust itself and break down in its internal disharmony and lifelessness. Therefore, our efforts will not be useless and vain in any case and in all aspects: scientific, humanitarian, social, peacemaking and political.
Our innovative scientific searches and peace books and projects live with this hope and faith. Our time is the decisive choice of destiny and future for humanity. His entire previous history led to the very brink of nuclear self-destruction, which would inevitably become a global ecocide and genocide, combined in a single planetary noospheral collapse.
Its reason is realized by the greatest minds of the geniuses in the middle of the last century: Gandhi, Einstein, Snow, Kennedy. John Kennedy summed up the tragic situation of humankind as an inevitable choice for it: "Mankind must put an end to war or war puts an end to mankind. What has changed in this tragic existential situation of humanity for years?
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We are in a new arms race. Every single nuclear-armed country is building new nuclear weapons and heading towards a confrontation point. Maybe more precisely: "hack" to "not die. For more than 40 years of development of spheral statistics, including statistics of spherons as its main part, and especially intensively within the GHA during last 14 years, thousands of pages of relevant statistical researches have accumulated in dozens of projects Semashko, , published in books and articles by paper and electronic.
Of course, it is impossible and inappropriate to reproduce them in this book, dedicated to Gandhi's non-violence, and not statistics. Therefore, it was decided to strictly select statistical researches of spherons in the last, most intensive period of The generalized statistical methodology is briefly presented in the first part of the book that makes it unnecessary to repeat it in every statistical research. This ensures their final assessment and recognition of their unique innovative scientific significance.
Without rejecting traditional statistics and not interfering with its established process, Spheron's statistics contribute to its logical coherence, integrity and congruence, opening up to it fundamentally new opportunities for both theoretical and technological development in fundamentally new integral and global digital statistical technologies.
These technologies provide a qualitative increase in its effectiveness as a powerful tool of economics, management and forecasting, which can ultimately determine, regulate and prevent social and economic disharmonies as sources of violence, wars and conflicts. In this mission, spheral statistics becomes a powerful scientific tool for cognition and cybernetic harmonious regulation of the "greatest force of non-violence" of spherons, which was intuitively felt, predicted and used by the genius of Mahatma Gandhi. The statistics of spherons makes available the understanding and conscious use of this "greatest force of non-violence" for all peoples and governments in order to solve peacefully and prevent conflicts of different groups and different nature.
It is also natural to have special difficulties and problems, as in any new science, in the spheral statistics of spherons. First, this is the problem of the accuracy of spheral indices, the error of which is within the limits of the permissible error of traditional statistics and does not go beyond its boundaries. Secondly, this is a problem of classifiers in the different countries, regions and periods with different names of indices and different units of population size, which have to be entered into spheral classifiers. Fourthly, it is a problem of different methods of different countries and different levels of statistical research.
In some cases, due to space constraints, we have abstracted from some valuable sections of the original statistical studies: gender, employment, age, percentage, etc. In view of the innovative and especially complex methodological, methodical and psychological nature of the statistical researches of spherons, each of their participants, regardless of the quality of the results, deserves the highest praise and moral recognition for it. GHA highly appreciates their contributions and expresses them heartfelt gratitude and appreciation. In this book, dedicated to Gandhi's non-violence, the published statistics of spherons confirms their role as the fundamental cause of the Gandhi "non-violence law of life" as "the greatest force of mankind", excluding war and militarism and ensuring the survival and prosperity of all peoples in their global peace from their spheronsconscious harmony.
Spheral indices. Ghana Statistical Service. GSS Tanzania - Population and Housing Census Population Distribution by Administrative Areas, Statistics Sierra Leone. The Spherons constitutes global societal structure and the actors of humanity survival including India. The Spherons Statistics is the proof of their reality, their measurement and the degree of their knowledge and its digitalization.
Spherons are the source of humanity life, the foundation of all its higher and eternal values: Harmony, Peace, Solidarity, Nonviolence, Justice, Unity, Freedom, Equality, Fraternity, Love and Happiness. Spherons are the more important largest parts of the country population so their knowledge is especially important for India as the second largest country in the world by population. Indian Labour Year Book Government of India. Ministry of Labour and EmploymentLabour Bureau.
Industrial Classification Data Information Office of the register General and Census Commissioner India. Ex Principal Basanti Devi College. Emeritus Professor in Political Science. Presently: Diamond Harbour Women University. The most numerous is spheron-1, in which Spheron-4 is in second place, respectively, There are a few population in spherons 2 and 3. The overall dynamics is a steady decline in the number of spheroon-4, due to which the number of spherons 2 and 3 is growing, as it can be seen from other tables of the number of spherons of Russia for different years.
At the same time, there was a reduction in the number of school employees; many staff units were abolished: speech therapist, psychologist and others; the nurse is listed in the hospital. Every from them is interested in it and support their harmony and nonviolence, from which follows peace ensuring a normal work and life of INATEK. Disruption of harmony is fraught with failures in work, conflicts and disorganization of the Institution. Every from them is interested in it and support their harmony and nonviolence, from which follows peace ensuring a normal work and life of College.
Disruption of harmony is fraught with failures in work, conflicts and disorganization of the College. Every from them is interested in it and support their harmony and nonviolence, from which follows peace ensuring a normal work and life of Bulnes Institute. Disruption of harmony is fraught with failures in work, conflicts and disorganization of the Bulnes Institute.
Every from them is interested in it and support their harmony and nonviolence, from which follows peace ensuring a normal work and life of Faculty. Disruption of harmony is fraught with failures in work, conflicts and disorganization of the Faculty. Every from them is interested in it and support their harmony and nonviolence, from which follows peace ensuring a normal work and life of University.
Disruption of harmony is fraught with failures in work, conflicts and disorganization of the University. Therefore, in the Institute spheral structure of all four spherons representatives are present and its work they provide but some of them are included in the Institute staff and others are invited from the side. A systematic research of Indian spherons in a special Academy with budget funding is a necessary condition for the country's scientific, social and economic progress in the 21st century.
Olga Kashina, Leo Semashko. As a result of the analysis and generalization of the population age structure for 61 countries in , four of its demographic types are formed:. Numerous meanings and specifics of the population age structure with tables, diagrams, formulas and graphs for different spheres and branches, as well as for intergenerational peaceful interaction and harmony are discussed in a full published initial research of O.
In the analyzed countries lived The greatest distribution of the number had a pyramidal and barrel age composition of the population of the analyzed countries. The cone type is less common. Age composition type. This part of the population constitutes the largest segment of the sociospheron in all countries without exception.
Another part of the population is "working" Pw or "economically active population" distributed over four spherons in each country. Below we consider in more detail each selected type with a list of countries included in it. Let us supplement this analysis with a calculation for each country conditionally unoccupied that means, fluctuating due to national reasons population Pn - non-working and the coefficient of unevenness of age composition. Our analysis summarizes the calculation tables. The pyramidal age structure pyramid is characteristic for the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
It has a high birth rate and the proportion of young people and a low proportion of elderly people. It is typical for 15 countries and is shown in Table In he returned to India and became the leader of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi urged non-violence and civil disobedience as a means to independence from Great Britain, with public acts of defiance that landed him in jail several times. In he participated in the postwar negotiations that led to Indian independence. He was shot to death by a Hindu fanatic in This childhood biography highlights the events that informed Gandhi's indomitable spirit.
Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Share This eBook:. Add to Wishlist. Instant Download. Description eBook Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Michelle Obama Meet the First Lady. Tales of Driving and Being Driven. But man has delighted in enslaving you and you have proved willing slaves till the slave and holders have become one in the crime on degrading humanity. My special function from childhood, you might say, has been to make women realize her dignity.
I was once slave holder myself but Ba proved an unwilling slave and thus "opened my eyes to my mission. There is not a woman in South Africa who does not know me. But my work was among the poorest. The intellectuals I could not draw I have not the gift There is invisible bond between them and me. Poor women understood what he was saying because he spoke in the religious pantheon and referred to the facts of caste and gender. Some times highly progressive, other times conservative, he created an empathy with his audience through this cultural fine tuning.
Gandhi was totally opposed to gender discrimination.
Gandhi did not like Indian society's preference for a boy and a general neglect of a girl child. In fact, in most cases she is not allowed to be born. If born her survival is not ensured. If somehow she survives she is subjected to neglect. She does not get respect and the status she deserves equal to that of a boy. He described discrimination against women as an anachronism as already stated: he said: "I fail to see any reason for jubilation over the birth of a son and for mourning over the birth of a daughter.
Both are God's gifts. They have an equal right to live and are equally necessary to keep the world going. He said that if she is weak in striking, she is strong in suffering. Gandhi described; "Woman as the embodiment of sacrifice and ahimsa. The husband's earnings are a joint property of husband and wife as he makes money by her assistance.
Each would forfeit these rights after they have grown up, and even before that if he or she is unfit for them. In short, I admit no distinction between men and women except such as has been made by nature and can be seen with human eyes. Gandhi prepared a primer for the children for a primary school. This primer or Balpothi is the form of a mother teaching the child. In a chapter on housework, The mother asks her son, "Dear Son, you should also help in the housework as your sister does.
I am a boy. A boy plays and studies. Sister says: How come I also like to play and study? Brother: I do not deny that but, dear sister, you have to do housework as well. The mother: Why should a boy not do house work? Son: Because the boy has to earn money when he grows up, therefore, he must study well. The Mother: You are wrong my son.
Woman also makes an earning for the family. And, there is a lot to learn in house work-house cleaning, cooking, laundry. By doing house work you will develop various skill of the body and will feel self-reliant. In good housework, you need to use your eyes, hands and brain. Men and women, both need to be educated equally in housework because the home belongs to both.
Gandhi expounds this theme further. More often than not a women's time is taken up not by the performance of essential domestic duties, but in catering for the egoistic pleasure of her lord and master for her own vanities. To me this domestic slavery of woman is the symbol of our barbarism mainly.
It is high time that out womankind was freed from this incubus. Domestic work ought not to take the whole of women's time. His policy of empowerment was that man must participate in the housework and reduce the drudgery of women's home work. Gandhi was not only a great political leader but a passionate lover of humanity. An implacable enemy of all injustice and inequalities, he was a friend of the lowly and the downtrodden. Harijans, women and the poor commanded his most tender attention. He had almost an instinctive understanding of women and their problems and had a deep abiding sympathy for them.
The oppressive custom of dowry too came under fire from Gandhi. He preferred girls to remain unmarried all their lives than to be humiliated and dishonored by marrying men who demanded dowry He found dowry marriages "heartless". Long Live Life! You can download and install for you F. You can download and install for you George Bellows: Painter with a Punch!
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