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But in light of rampant violations, the government plans to make it binding on companies. A final proposal will be drawn up soon.

Pharmaceutical Industry Essay

Even after the code kicked in this year, complaints continued, with many saying it existed only on paper, as firms try to influence prescriptions. Read more on forum. Pharma companies. Advertising Council. Follow us on. Download et app. Become a member.

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Mail This Article. My Saved Articles Sign in Sign up. Find this comment offensive? Whyte and colleagues present the awful choices the and understanding of the condition is subverted through industry many HIV-affected Ugandan families are faced with in providing influencing the production and communication of the related science members with access to expensive drugs that will prolong lives. The extent to which it will succeed in this goal is limited on one In the fourth essay, Kalman Appelbaum distinguishes between hand by a lack of overall theoretical coherence and on the other the global evolution of medical treatment for depression and the by the frequent reference to arcane social theoretical concepts global expansion of markets for anti-depressants.

Kalman details that may alienate some readers. However, all in all the collection the concerted efforts of US-based pharmaceutical manufacturers is to be recommended. There is sufficient colour in each of the to expand the market for their products in Japan. Related Papers. By Kalman Applbaum. By Medicina Juiz de Fora. By jaspal kaur.

The Inaugural Conference on Disease Mongering. By David Henry. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

Need an account? Click here to sign up. According to these authors, the molecular era is more a continuation of than a rupture with the preceding one. Nonetheless, through precise interventions at the molecular level, the delineations of what is natural and what is artificial are constantly being redefined. New reproductive technologies including artificial uteri , which permit the reprogramming of the beginnings of life on one end and driving back the aging process on the other, are emblematic of the transformation of the technoscientific and medical gaze on life itself.

Global Pharmaceuticals By Adriana Petryna

Molecularisation is accompanied by a process of geneticisation, reflecting a promise of customised and personalised medicine through pharmacogenetics Hedgecoe and Martin Rose : However, in acting on the molecular biology of individuals, drugs also hold the potential to contribute to the extension of the limits of the human body.

Because of their materiality and their wide accessibility, they operate on a far larger scale than other medical technologies, such as assisted reproductive technologies, which to be implemented require a complex medical setting and expertise. Drugs embody, in a metonymical fashion, all the medical expertise underlying their design, thus allowing their autonomous impact on the lifestyle of individuals. Therefore, drugs are likely to play a significant role in the reconfiguration of the boundaries between nature and culture in everyday life, for example, through menstrual suppression or sleep elimination.

Originally designed to control health problems, combined hormonal contraceptives for menstrual suppression CHCs, mostly oral contraceptive pills are increasingly used for reasons of comfort and lifestyle Hitchcock Because they are taken over a long period of time, CHCs modify what is conceptualised as the natural functions of the body. However, beyond its lifestyle appeal, menstrual suppression is increasingly seen as an appropriate measure for women in certain lines of work, such as military personnel in the deployed environment. Thus, for many women, the social imperatives of productivity extend beyond any personal freedom from the bodily limitations imposed by menstruation.

It is on the basis of such arguments that the debate around menstrual suppression arose, starting in the s. These insist on the cost of lost work due to menstruation Hitchcock Indeed, feminist analyses, such as Lippman's , state that the ideology of productivity in a capitalist society leads the female body to be considered a dysfunctional machine. According to his very personal interpretation of history, Western women are not expected to reproduce at the same pace than in past centuries even millennia to ensure the survival of the human species.

Over their lifetimes, contemporary women experience hundreds more menstruations than their ancestors, needlessly weakening them and sapping their energy. Pharmaceuticals then follow the same itinerary, whether the issue at hand is menstrual suppression or sleep elimination.


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Initially approved for specific health problems, the demand for these drugs quickly rises to support lifestyle and personal choices. Their mandatory use is then contemplated in certain work settings while scientific arguments, justifying a generalised use in the name of health, public safety and the good of society, proliferate. According to this model, biosocialisation may be conceived as a mechanism through which there is a progressive superimposition of two antinomic conditions: inclusion in and exclusion from society.

While there has always been a tension between inclusion and exclusion, it is increasingly common for individuals to be fully integrated in a community while simultaneously marginalised or stigmatised by society. Pharmaceuticals would then play a significant role in building collective identities through individuals sharing their experiences related to consuming the drugs or, on the other end of the spectrum, their refusal to use them.

Thus, through the construction of individual and collective identities, there is also a tension between conformity — via a standardisation and normalisation of behaviour and appearances — and resistance to this homogenising force. The valorization of autonomy that characterises contemporary Western societies implies that individuals must be themselves as much as possible Ehrenberg However, at the same time, they have to conform to social norms.

Georg Simmel aptly captures this ambivalence in his analysis of fashion Simmel and Wolff According to Simmel, fashion incarnates the tension between social imitation on the one hand — being fashionable means following the trends — and, on the other, being concerned with individual distinction — building, preserving and developing one's image, and expressing it through fashion. Aspiring to be as much oneself as possible, in fact, means meeting social expectations for performance and autonomy.

In societies where the somatic is a powerful dimension for uniting individuals around a common identity, conformity — via a standardisation and normalisation of behaviour and appearances — and resistance — to this homogenising force — are the two ends of a continuum underlying the process of biosocialisation. The prevalence of social phobia labelled social anxiety disorder SAD in more recent editions of the DSM was then estimated to be between 1. Ten years later this was revised to 13 per cent.


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This rise is partly due to a reduction of diagnostic criteria — in numbers as in severity, making them more inclusive — but also to the marketing of antidepressants approved for the treatment of social phobia Collin and Otero Wide commercialisation of these drugs confers a deep social resonance, a tangible reality, to extreme shyness, bolstering its public awareness. However, the medicalisation of this condition does not constitute its most intriguing aspect.

Rather, it is this tension between conformity and resistance. While some people find a new social space in patient support groups, allowing for collective learning from the personal experiences of others, numerous websites aim to resist the label of SAD or even of shyness — and to assert the specificity of its followers as introverts.

Interestingly, the mediatised translation of this concept in popular discourse is no longer extreme shyness, but simply shyness. The issue today is how to distance oneself from the stigma of the shy label and embrace the introvert identity. Websites providing information and support are indeed very important in forging a collective identity that redefines shyness or introvert behaviour outside the realm of medicine. For introverts, the plague is not the illness but the necessity to conform to the norm of extroversion, sociability and loudness.

Enjoying solitude and quiet endeavours is not what is currently socially valued, as this quote, taken from a website where patients and physicians share information and experiences, demonstrates:.

Globalised drug development

So, the ex's have it. Extraversion IS the norm. Introverts are the outsiders, struggling to fit into a world set up for the numerical majority. McManamy Redefining identity in physiological and molecular terms, through describing how the brain works differently for introverts and extroverts, is rather common on blogs and support websites:. Introverts have more brain activity in their frontal lobes and when these areas are activated through solitary activity, introverts become energized through processes such as problem solving, introspection, and complex thinking… There's a deeper science to this that involves differences in the levels of brain chemicals such as acetylcholine and dopamine in extroverts and introverts, but I won't get into that.

ProperlyChastised, n. Thus, introverts would also define themselves as neurochemical selves, albeit of a different neurochemical kind, and seek social approval of that difference. Even further, the idea is to convince others that society needs introverts, that they can make it a better, more balanced place. The TED Talk she presented in has attracted 9 million views and earned a place among the top 20 most viewed talks Cain b.

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The author also manages a webpage and a blog on introvert empowerment Cain n. According to Cain, introverts think more deeply, concentrate better, are more inventive, more insightful, and more sensitive and moral than extroverts. Several other support groups sites such as Quietly Fabulous, n. Among the pharmaceuticals that are used as cognitive enhancers, methylphenidate, amphetamine salts and modafinil are most often referred to.

However, other issues are also directly related to this phenomenon, such as the multiple sources of information available on drugs and drug use, as well as the influence of peers on the construction of practices. In contemporary Western societies, the body is the path though which identities are exposed and expressed Rose This refers to the logic of productivity within which an individual must develop their capacities to the maximum and become successful in every sphere of their life, be it social, academic or related to health and the body.

Conversely, for others, the use of pharmaceuticals allows the attainment of maximum performance levels and, consequently, control over body and health. Through pharmaceuticals the body becomes instrumentalised. It can be put to sleep or stimulated at will; it can be reprogrammed in a way that allows individuals to answer to the performance requirements that weigh them down.

Thus, while illicit users of ADHD medications are those who most intensely adhere to the competitive ethic found in academia, can they truly be considered deviant and marginal or are they rather more closely assimilated to the neoliberal ideology of productivity and performance that characterises Western societies? In the case of smart drugs, as with shyness, pharmaceuticals reveal themselves as powerful devices for shaping identities and blurring the boundary between inclusion and exclusion, as well as between conformity and resistance.

In this article I have suggested that drugs are major devices of the dispositif of the pharmaceutical regime that characterises contemporary Western societies. Pharmaceuticals play a significant role in the transformation of perspective or gaze that characterises medicalisation, molecularisation and biosocialisation. They achieve this by shifting our views on health, nature and identity from a categorical to a dimensional framework.

Thus, central to this conceptualisation is the assumption that the same basic mechanism is at work in these three processes. This does not entail that pharmaceuticals are the only devices able to act on our conception of nature, illness and identity. However, the reason they play a crucial role in this process is that they colonise every sphere of contemporary social experiences, reaching far beyond the medical realm. Therefore, I would like to conclude by proposing that three characteristics distinguishing drugs from other medical technologies significantly contribute to the colonisation of all social spheres by pharmaceuticals.

The first is their materiality their concreteness , which provides them with a metonymical function van der Geest and Whyte In other words, the medical and scientific expertise is incorporated into the object itself: the pill.

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Pharma companies team up to clean industry’s image, push for ethical marketing practices

This is different from other medical technologies that require a medical setting medical instruments and experts to implement them. Both the concrete and the metonymic nature of prescription drugs allow the layperson to re—appropriate their uses and effects. This democratisation of technology bestows drugs with enormous potential for social transformation, as it facilitates shifting their use towards enhancement, such as in the case of cognitive enhancers, or other nonmedical outcomes, for example, improving one's lifestyle or answering to the demands of productivity, as in the case of menstruation and sleep suppression.

Thus, this materiality increases the potential for the autonomisation of technology.

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