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Great men and great causes have always some helper of whom the outside world knows but little. There always is, and always has been, some human being in whose life their roots have been nourished. Sometimes these helpers have been men, sometimes they have been women, who have given themselves to help and to strengthen those called upon to be leaders and workers, inspiring them with courage, keeping faith in their own idea alive, in days of darkness,. These helpers and sustainers, men or women, have all the same quality in common — absolute devotion and unwavering faith in the individual or in the cause.
Seeking nothing for themselves, thinking nothing of themselves, they have all an intense power of sympathy, a noble love of giving themselves for the service of others, which enables them to transfuse the force of their own personality into the object to which they dedicate their powers. She stood beside her brother, William Herschel, sharing his labours, helping his life. In the days when he gave up a lucrative career that he might devote himself to astronomy, it was owing to her thrift and care that he was not harassed by the rankling vexations of money matters. She had been his helper and assistant in the days when he was a leading musician; she became his helper and assistant when he gave himself up to astronomy.
By sheer force of will and devoted affection, she learned enough of mathematics and of methods of calculation, which to those unlearned seem mysteries, to be able to commit to writing the results of his researches. She became his assistant in the workshop; she helped him to grind and polish his mirrors; she stood beside his telescope in the nights of mid-winter, to write down his observations, when the very ink was frozen in the bottle. She kept him alive by her care; thinking nothing of herself, she lived for him.
She loved him, and believed in him, and helped him, with all her heart and with all her strength. She might have become a distinguished woman on her own account, for with the "seven-foot Newtonian sweeper" given to her by her brother, she discovered eight comets first and last. But the pleasure of seeking and finding for herself was scarcely tasted. She "minded the heavens" for her brother; she worked for him, not for herself, and the unconscious self-denial with which she gave up her own pleasure in the use of her "sweeper," is not the least beautiful feature in her life.
She must have been witty and amusing, to judge from her books of "Recollections. It was not to tell about herself, but of others, that she wrote them. There is not any good biography of Sir William Herschel, and the incidental revelations of him in these Recollections are valuable. They show how well he deserved the love and devotion she rendered to him. Great as were his achievements in science, and his genius, they were borne up and ennobled by the beauty and worth of his own inner life. These memorials of his father and his aunt were much valued by Sir John Herschel, and they are carefully preserved by the family along with her letters.
The perusal of them is like reading of another world. The glimpses of the life of a soldier's family in Hanover at the time the Seven Years' War was going on are very touching. Both father and mother must have been remarkable persons, and the sterling quality of character developed in William and Caroline Herschel was evidently derived from them. All the family seem to have been endowed with something like touches of genius, but William and Caroline were the only two who had the strong back-bone of perseverance and high principle which made genius in them fulfil its perfect work.
Her own recollections go back to the Great Earthquake at Lisbon; she lived through the American War, the old French Revolution, the rise and fall of Napoleon, and all manner of lesser events and wars. She saw all the improvements and inventions, from the lumbering post waggon in which she made her first journey from Hanover, to the railroads and electric telegraphs which have intersected all Europe, for she lived well down into the reign of Victoria.
But her work of "minding the heavens" with her brother engrossed all her thoughts, and she scarcely mentions any public event. Her own astronomical labours were remarkable, and in her later life she met with honour and recognition from learned men and learned societies; but her dominant idea was always the same — "I am nothing, I have done nothing; all I am, all I know, I owe to my brother.
I am only the tool which he shaped to his use — a well-trained puppy-dog would have done as much. She had lived so many years in companionship with a truly great man, and in the presence of the unfathomable depths of the starry heavens, that praise of herself seemed childish exaggeration. The Letters and Recollections contained in this volume will show what she really was. She would have been very angry if she could have foreseen their publication, yet, in consideration of the great interest they possess, we hope to be justified for making known to the world such an example of self-sacrifice and perseverance under difficulties.
The spelling has been modernised, — an old lady who had discovered eight comets might be allowed to spell in her own way; but it is pleasanter to read what is written in an accustomed manner. A word has been altered occasionally where the sense required it, otherwise no change has been made, and as little has been added as was possible, and only with the view of giving a slight connecting thread of narrative. If these Recollections convey as much pleasure to the readers of them as they have given to the Editor, they will feel that they have gained another friend in Caroline Lucretia Herschel.
W HEN past ninety a second memoir was undertaken, and in order to encourage her to continue it her niece, Lady Herschel, wrote to her as follows:— How can I tell you how much my heart is set upon the accomplishment of this work? You know you cannot be idle while you live.
But indeed, if I could tell you the influence which a short account by a stranger of your labours with your dear Brother had upon me when a child, and of my choosing you then so unknown to me as my guiding star and example, you would understand how the possession of such a record by your own hand would make me almost believe in auguries and presentiments, and perhaps inspire some future generations more worthily, as the record would be more genuine.
Portrait of Caroline Herschel. She was the eighth child and fourth daughter of Isaac Herschel, by Anna Ilse Moritzen, to whom he was married in August, The family consisted of ten children, four of whom died in early childhood. A memorandum in the handwriting of Isaac Herschel, transcribed by his daughter in the original German at the beginning of her Recollections, traces the family back to the early part of the seventeenth century, about which time, it appears that three brothers Herschel left Moravia on account of their religion which was Protestant , and became possessors of land in Saxony.
One of these brothers, Hans, was a brewer at Pirna, a little town two miles from Dresden, and the father of two sons, one of whom, Abraham by name, was born in , was the father of the above-mentioned Isaac, and the grandfather of Caroline Lucretia Herschel. Abraham Herschel was employed in the royal gardens at Dresden, he received commissions from various quarters on account of his taste and skill as a landscape gardener.
Of his four children, Eusebius, the eldest, appears to have kept up little or no intercourse with his family after the father's death in Benjamin, the second son, died in his third year; and Isaac, the youngest, was born 14th of January, , and was thus an orphan at the early age of eleven years. His parents wished him to be a gardener like his father, but a passionate love of music led him to take every opportunity of practising on the violin, besides studying music under a hautboy-player in the royal band.
In July, , he went to Brunswick, and in August to Hanover, where he at once obtained an engagement as hautboy-player in the band of the Guards, and in the August following he married as above stated. With the exception of frequent absences from home which attendance on a regiment made inevitable, the family life went on smoothly enough for some years, the father taking every opportunity, when at home, to cultivate the musical talents of his sons, who depended for the ordinary routine of education on the garrison school, to which all the children went from the age of two to fourteen.
Here the splendid talents of William early displayed themselves, and the master confessed that the pupil had soon got beyond his teacher. Although four years younger than Jacob, when the two brothers had lessons in French, the younger had mastered the language in half the time needed by the elder, and he in some measure satisfied his eager desire for knowledge by attending out of school hours to learn all that his master could teach of Latin and arithmetic. At fourteen he was an excellent performer both on the oboe and violin.
The first serious calamity recorded was the irreparable injury caused to the father's health by the hardships of war. After the battle of Dettingen June 16th, the troops remained all night on the field, which was soaked by heavy rains. The unfortunate bandmaster lay in a wet furrow, which caused a complete loss of the use of his limbs for some time, and left him with an impaired constitution and an asthmatical affection which afflicted him to the end of his life. During the dark times of the Seven Years' War, the little Caroline, then her mother's sole companion, often heard this grievous trouble spoken of, and the shadow of it cast a gloom over her childish recollections, most of which are of a sombre character.
At three years old she was a deeply interested participator in all the family concerns, and of that period she writes:—. The next interesting event was the marriage of the eldest daughter, who was living with a family at Brunswick, and whom her sister says she had never seen until she came home to be married. The bridegroom, Mr. Griesbach, also a musician in the Guard, found no favour in the eyes of his sister-in-law, and it is evidently some satisfaction to her to have been told that her father never cordially approved the match,.
A little later, when war troubles broke up the household, and the bride returned to her mother, we are told:. The earthquake which destroyed Lisbon on the 1st November , was strongly felt at Hanover, and became closely associated in the poor little girl's mind with the trials and troubles which shortly afterwards fell upon the family. She says:—. For a little while the family enjoyed a peaceful interval, during which the extraordinary proficiency of his two eldest sons was a growing source of delight to the father, whose utmost ambition was to see them become accomplished musicians; while the wider flights of William met with his most cordial sympathy.
The following passage is one of the very few which reflect the brighter side of the picture:—. Often I would keep myself awake that I might listen to their animating remarks, for it made me so happy to see them so happy. But generally their conversation would branch out on philosophical subjects, when my brother William and my father often argued with such warmth, that my mother's interference became necessary, when the names Leibnitz, Newton, and Euler sounded rather too loud for the repose of her little ones, who ought to be in school by seven in the morning.
But it seems that on the brothers retiring to their own room, where they shared the same bed, my brother William had still a great deal to say; and frequently it happened that when he stopped for an assent or reply, he found his hearer was gone to sleep, and I suppose it was not till then that he bethought himself to do the same. My father was a great admirer of astronomy, and had some knowledge of that science; for I remember his taking me, on a clear frosty night, into the street, to make me acquainted with several of the most beautiful constellations, after we had been gazing at a comet which was then visible.
And I well remember with what delight he used to assist my brother William in his various contrivances in the pursuit of his philosophical studies, among which was a neatly turned 4-inch globe, upon which the equator and ecliptic were engraved by my brother. Towards the end of the year the regiment was under orders for England, and the little household was at once broken up. A place in the court orchestra had been promised to Jacob, but the vacancy did not, unfortunately, occur in time, and he was obliged to smother his discontent, lower his ambition, and accept a place in the band with his younger brother.
At length the sad hour of parting arrived:—. Of my brother Jacob I only remember his starting difficulties at everything that was done for him, as my father was busy to see that they were equipped with the necessaries for a march The whole town was in motion with drums beating to march: the troops hallooed and roared in the streets, the drums beat louder, Griesbach came to join my father and brothers, and in a moment they all were gone. My sister fled to her own room.
Alexander went with many others to follow their relatives for some miles to take a last look. I found myself now with my mother alone in a room all in confusion, in one corner of which my little brother Dietrich lay in his cradle; my tears flowed like my mother's, but neither of us could speak. I snatched a large handkerchief of my father's from a chair and took a stool to place it at my mother's feet, on which I sat down, and put into her hands one corner of the handkerchief, reserving the opposite one for myself; this little action actually drew a momentary smile into her face My father left half his pay for our support in the hands of an agent in Hanover, but Griesbach, instead of following my father's example, gave up his lodging and brought his wife with her goods and chattels to her mother, which arrangement was no small addition to our uncomfortable situation.
Even at this early age, it is not difficult to trace in these childish recollections the influence of that intense affection for her brother William which made him more and more the centre of all her interests; next to him, her father filled a large place in her heart. Of the long year of separation, nothing is recorded. At last Jacob arrived having "out of aggravation" got permission to resign his place when the hoped-for vacancy in the orchestra had been otherwise filled he had travelled by post, while his father and brother, "who never forsook him for self-consideration," were still toiling wearily on the march home.
My dear brother William threw down his knife and fork, and ran to welcome and crouched down to me, which made me forget all my grievances. The rest were so happy The visit to England appears to have further developed the love of show and luxury which painfully distinguished Jacob, who must needs import specimens of English goods and English tailoring, while all that William brought back was a copy of Locke on the Human Understanding, the purchase of which absorbed all his private means, as he never willingly asked his father for a single penny. But it was becoming apparent that he had not the physical strength to continue in the Guard during war time, and after the disastrous campaign of , and the defeat at Hastenbeck, 1 26th July, between 20 and 30 miles from Hanover , his parents resolved to remove him — a step apparently attended by no small difficulty, as our faithful chronicler narrates:—.
After he had succeeded in passing unnoticed beyond the last sentinel at Herrenhausen he changed his dress My brother's keeping himself so carefully from all notice was undoubtedly to avoid the danger of being pressed, for all unengaged young men were forced into the service. Even the clergy, unless they had livings, were not exempted. During these times of public and private peril, the little girl was sent regularly to the garrison school with her brother Alexander till three in the afternoon, when she went to another school till six, to learn knitting.
Besides this my pen was frequently in requisition for writing not only my mother's letters to my father, but for many a poor soldier's wife in our neighbourhood to her husband in the camp: for it ought to be remembered that in the beginning of the last century very few women, when they left country schools, had been taught to write. In addition to these occupations, she was called upon to make herself useful when the fastidious Jacob honoured the humble table with his presence, "and poor I got many a whipping for being awkward at supplying the place of footman or waiter.
After the loss of the battle at Hastenbeck, the Recollections thus conclude this period. In that in which we were obliged to bewail in silence our cruel fate, no less than 16 privates were quartered, besides some officers who occupied the best apartments, and this lasted for about two years [a note of later date says "not so long"] before the town was liberated. A gap occurs here, between the years and , several pages having been torn out in both the original "Recollections" and the unfinished memoir commenced in In the former, a sentence beginning "the next time I saw him [Jacob] was when he came running to my mother with a letter, the contents of which," remains unfinished, and the narrative recommences with: "After reading over many pages, I thought it best to destroy them, and merely to write down what I remember to have passed in our family.
Jacob returned for the second time from England at the end of , and obtained the place of first violin in the court orchestra. As usual the appearance of this member of the family caused a general upset of domestic comfort, for. The younger children made great progress under their father's careful training, and with all her propensity for seeing the dark side, the daughter's recollections of this period afford glimpses of a tolerably happy household.
If it was "a helpless and distracted family" to which, as she writes, her father returned, those epithets could ill apply to the father himself, for there is abundant evidence that he was a man of no ordinary character — one who, in spite of constant suffering of a most distressing kind, persisted in hard work to the very end, and who set his children a noble example of patience, unselfishness, and self-denial. To the last, as his daughter records, —.
With my brother [Dietrich] now a little engaging creature of between four and five years old — he was very much pleased, and [on the first evening of his arrival at home] before he went to rest, the Adempken a little violin was taken from the lumbering shelf and newly strung and the daily lessons immediately commenced. I do not recollect that he ever desired any other society than what he had opportunities of enjoying in many of the parties where he was introduced by his profession; though far from being of a morose disposition; he would frequently encourage my mother in keeping up a social intercourse among a few acquaintances, whilst his afternoon hours generally were taken up in giving lessons to some scholars at home, who gladly saved him the troublesome exertion of walking He also found great pleasure in seeing Dietrich's improvement, who, young as he was, and of the most lively temper imaginable, was always ready to receive his lessons, leaving his little companions with whom our neighbourhood abounded with the greatest cheerfulness to go to his father, who was so pleased with his performances that — I think it must have been in October or November — he made him play a solo on the Adempken in Rake's concert, being placed on a table before a crowded company, for which he was very much applauded and caressed, particularly by an English lady, who put a gold coin in his little pocket.
And when they assembled at my father's to make little concerts, I was frequently called to join the second violin in an overture, for my father found pleasure in giving me sometimes a lesson before the instruments were laid by after practising with Dietrich, for I never was missing at those hours, sitting in a corner with my knitting and listening all the while.
A serious interruption of this and all other occupations was caused by a severe attack of typhus fever which in the summer of threatened to be fatal, and. In spite of her strong objections to learning, the worthy mother had too correct a view of her duties to stand in the way of the necessary preparation for her daughter's confirmation, who was accordingly, but not without complaints at the loss of time, released from her household avocations for this purpose. Alexander, who had been taken as a sort of apprentice by Griesbach, was now of an age to turn his great musical talents to profitable account, and returned to Hanover, where he obtained the somewhat mysterious situation of Stadtmusicus Town Musician , the duties of which office involved.
Although the absent brother William kept up regular correspondence with Hanover, many of his letters were written in English and addressed to Jacob, on such subjects as the Theory of Music, in which the family in general could not participate. Year after year went by, and William showed no inclination to leave England, to which country he was becoming more and more attached; the poor father, who felt his strength steadily declining, became painfully eager for his return.
On the 2nd April, , they were thrown into "a tumult of joy" by his appearance among them. The visit was a very brief one, offering no hope of any intention to settle in Hanover; the father was well aware that he at least could not look forward to another meeting on earth, while to the poor little unnoticed girl, this visit and its attendant circumstances stood out in her memory as fraught with anguish, which even her unskilled pen succeeds in representing as a grief almost too deep for words.
It was within a dozen yards from the open door; the postilion giving a smettering blast on his horn. Its effect on my shattered nerves, I will not attempt to describe, nor what I felt for days and weeks after. I wish it were possible to say what I wish to say, without feeling anew that feverish wretchedness which accompanied my walk in the afternoon with some of my school companions, in my black silk dress and bouquet of artificial flowers — the same which had served my sister on her bridal day. I could think of nothing but that on my return I should find nobody but my disconsolate father and mother, for Alexander's engagements allowed him to be with us only at certain hours, and Jacob was seldom at home except to dress and take his meals.
From the state of hopeless lethargy in which the poor sister describes herself as going mechanically about her daily tasks after that memorable day, she was roused by a calamity which affected all alike. The father had a paralytic seizure the August following, by which he lost the use of his right side almost entirely, and although he so far recovered as to be able still to receive pupils in his own house, he never regained his former skill on the violin, and was reduced to a sad state of suffering and infirmity; a few months later he was pronounced to be in a confirmed dropsy.
Changes of abode, not always for the better; anxieties, on account of Alexander's prospects and Jacob's vagaries; disappointment, at seeing his daughter grow up without the education he had hoped to give her; were the circumstances under which the worn-out sufferer struggled through the last three years of his life, copying music at every spare moment, assisting at a Concert only a few weeks before his death, and giving lessons until he was obliged to keep wholly to his bed.
He was released from his sufferings at the comparatively early age of sixty-one on the 22nd March, , leaving to his children little more than the heritage of his good example, unblemished character, and those musical talents which he had so carefully educated, and by which he probably hoped the more gifted of his sons would attain to eminence.
Miss Herschel describes herself as having fallen into "a kind of stupefaction," which lasted for many weeks after the loss of her father, and the awakening to life had little of hope in the present or promise for the future, so far as she could see then. At the age of seventeen she had learned little beyond the first elements of education, and she was now deprived of the one friend who encouraged and sympathised with her desire for better instruction.
The parents had never agreed on the subject. Having added this accomplishment to my former ingenuities, I never afterwards could find leisure for thinking of anything but to contrive and make for the family in all imaginable forms whatever was wanting, and thus I learned to make bags and sword-knots long before I knew how to make caps and furbelows My mother would not consent to my being taught French, and my brother Dietrich was even denied a dancing-master, because she would not permit my learning along with him, though the entrance had been paid for us both; so all my father could do for me was to indulge me and please himself sometimes with a short lesson on the violin, when my mother was either in good humour or out of the way.
Though I have often felt myself exceedingly at a loss for the want of those few accomplishments of which I was thus, by an erroneous though well-meant opinion of my mother, deprived, I could not help thinking but that she had cause for wishing me not to know more than was necessary for being useful in the family; for it was her certain belief that my brother William would have returned to his country, and my eldest brother not have looked so high, if they had had a little less learning.
But sometimes I found it scarcely possible to get through with the work required, and felt very unhappy that no time at all was left for improving myself in music or fancy-work, in which I had an opportunity of receiving some instruction from an ingenious young woman whose parents lived in the same house with us.
But the time wanted for spending a few hours together could only be obtained by our meeting at daybreak, because by the time of the family's rising at seven, I was obliged to be at my daily business. But during the summer months of , very few mornings passed without our spending a few hours together, to which I was called by my friend's loud cough at her window by way of notice that she was ready for me [she could not sleep, and was glad of my company.
I lost her soon after, for she died of consumption]. It was with the same object of fitting herself to earn her bread that, after her father's death, she obtained permission to go for a month or two to learn millinery and dress-making; her eldest brother Jacob, before leaving them to join William at Bath, having graciously given his consent, "if it was only meant to learn to make my own things, but positively forbidding it for any other purpose. Among the group were several young ladies of genteel families, and as I came there on rather reduced terms, I expected that I should be kept in the back ground, doing nothing but the plain work of the business; but contrary to my fears, I gained in the school-mistress a valuable friend Here I found myself daily happy for a few hours and one of the young women, 3 after a lapse of thirty-five years, when I was introduced to her at the Queen's Lodge, received me as an old acquaintance, though I could but just remember having sometimes exchanged a nod and smile with a sweet little girl about ten or eleven years old.
But I soon was sensible of having found what hitherto I had looked for in vain — a sincere and disinterested friend to whom I might have applied for counsel and comfort in my deserted situation. A proposal from Jacob that Dietrich, whom the father on his deathbed had specially commended to his care, should be sent to England, caused his mother the utmost distress, on account of his being still too young to be confirmed; but her scruples were overcome and Dietrich was despatched in the summer as soon as a fitting escort could be found.
It was not, however, till the middle of the following summer that we saw him again, and I suppose his stay must have been prolonged on account of waiting till he had had the honour of playing before their Majesties, for which in consequence of having composed and dedicated a set of six sonatas to the Queen he was informed he would receive a summons After this his salary was augmented by thalers," and the promise of not being overlooked in future.
They played nowhere for money, for even when in I think it was the King's theatre was first opened to the Public , and the Court orchestra was called upon to play there, they did it without any emolument, so that there was no way left to increase their small salaries but by giving a few subscription concerts in the winter, or by teaching. So much, by way of apology, for the emigration of part of my family to England. My mother spun, I was at work on a set of ruffles of Dresden-work for my brother Jacob, whilst Alexander often sat by us and amused us and himself with making all sorts of things in pasteboard, or contriving how to make a twelve-hour Cuckoo clock go a week As my mother saw that Dietrich's confirmation was still uncertain, she insisted on having him back again Accordingly at the end of July they [Jacob and Dietrich] arrived, and Dietrich entered school again immediately," but remained only until his confirmation the following Easter.
A new direction was suddenly given to all their plans by the arrival of letters from the absent brother William, who proposed that his sister should join him at Bath —. Jacob remained with his family until the following July, when he returned to Bath, this time taking Alexander with him for two years' leave of absence, the young Dietrich being deemed competent not only to supply his place in the orchestra, but also to attend his private pupils. Nothing is recorded in the interval between Jacob's return to Hanover in the autumn and the long expected arrival of William in April, , except one of the changes of abode, which were of such frequent occurrence, involving abundance of employment in making and altering articles of household use, which afforded some relief to the conscientious daughter, who was sorely troubled by uncertainty as to her duty in the matter of going to England or staying with her mother, although the latter had given her consent to the change.
His stay at Hanover could at the utmost not be prolonged above a fortnight My mother had consented to my going with him, and the anguish at my leaving her was somewhat alleviated by my brother settling a small annuity on her, by which she would be enabled to keep an attendant to supply my place. One of them went upstairs with me to help me to put on my clothes, and after taking some tea we mounted some sort of a cart to bring us to the next place where diligences going to London would pass.
But we had hardly gone a quarter of an English mile when the horse, which was not used to go in what they called the shafts, ran away with us, overturning the cart with trunk and passengers. My brother, another person, and myself all throwing themselves out, I flying into a dry ditch. We all came off however, with only the fright, owing to the assistance of a gentleman who, with his servant, was accompanying us on horseback. These persons had come in the packet with us, and it was settled not to part till in London, where we arrived at noon on the 26th at an inn in the City.
Here we remained till the evening of the 27th. My brother having business at the West-end of the town, left me under the care of our fellow travellers; but after his return, in the evening when the shops were lighted up, we went to see all that was to be seen in that part of London, of which I only remember the opticians' shops, for I do not think we stopped at any other. Mem: only the outside, except of St.
Paul's and the Bank, and we were never off our legs, except at meals in our inn. Towards evening we went to the West of the town, where, after having called on Despatch Secretary Wiese and his lady Mr. Wiese conducted our correspondence with Hanover we went to the inn, from whence we at ten o'clock in the evening started by the night coach for Bath on the 28th of August After taking some tea I went immediately to bed, and I did not awake till the next day in the afternoon, when I found my brother had but just left his room. I for my part was, from the privation of sleep for eleven or twelve days not having above twice been in what they called a bed almost annihilated.
The only allusion to this journey in Sir W. Herschel's Journal is the brief entry:— "August 16, Set off on my return to England in company with my sister. A T the time when William Herschel brought his sister back with him to Bath, he had established himself there as a teacher of music, numbering among his pupils many ladies of rank. He was also organist of the Octagon Chapel, and frequently composed anthems, chants, and whole services for the choir under his management.
On the retirement of Mr. Linley father of the celebrated singer, afterwards the beautiful Mrs. Sheridan from the direction of the Public Concerts, he at once added this to his other avocations, and was consequently immersed in business of the most laborious and harassing kind during the whole of the Bath season.
But he considered all this professional work only as the means to an end; devotion to music produced income and a certain degree of leisure, and these were becoming every day more imperatively necessary. Every spare moment of the day, and many hours stolen from the night, had long been devoted to the studies which were compelling him to become himself an observer of the heavens.
Insufficient mechanical means roused his inventive genius; and, as all the world knows, the mirror for the mighty forty-foot telescope was the crowning result. To his pupils he was known as not a music-master alone. Some ladies had lessons in astronomy from him, and, at the invitation of his friend Dr. Watson, he became a member of a philosophical society then recently started in Bath, to which he for several years contributed a great number of papers on various scientific subjects.
It soon came to pass that the gentlemen who sought interviews with him, asking for a peep through the wonderful tube, carried stories of what they had seen to London, and these were not long in finding their way to St. It was thus at the very turning-point of her brother's career that Caroline Herschel became his companion and fellow-worker. No contrast could be sharper than that presented by the narrow domestic routine she had left to the life of ceaseless and inexhaustible activity into which she was plunged; — unless, indeed, it be that presented by the nature of the events she has to record, and the tone in which they are recorded.
For ten years she persevered at Bath, singing when she was told to sing, copying when she was told to copy, "lending a hand" in the workshop, and taking her full share in all the stirring and exciting changes by which the musician became the King's astronomer and a celebrity; but she never, by a single word, betrays how these wonderful events affected her; nor ever indulges in the slightest approach to an original sentiment, comment, or reflection not strictly connected with the present fact.
Whether it be to record the presentation of the "golden medal," or the dishonesty of the incorrigible Betties who then, and till her life's end, so sorely tried her peace of mind, there is no difference in the style or spirit of the "Recollections. Bulman's family, who occupied the parlour floor, and had the management of his servant and household affairs. My brother had formerly boarded with them at Leeds, whence, on Mr.
Bulman's failure in business, they had removed to Bath, where my brother procured for him the place of Clerk at the Octagon Chapel On our journey he had taken every opportunity to make me hope to find in Mrs. Bulman a well-informed and well-meaning friend, and in her daughter, a few years younger than myself, an agreeable companion.
But as I knew no more English than the few words which I had on our journey learned to repeat like a parrot, it may be easily supposed that it would require some time before I could feel comfortable among strangers. But as the season for the arrival of visitors to the Baths does not begin till October, my brother had leisure to try my capacity for becoming a useful singer for his concerts and oratorios, and being very well satisfied with my voice, I had two or three lessons every day, and the hours which were not spent at the harpsichord were employed in putting me in the way of managing the family On the second morning, on meeting my brother at breakfast, he began immediately to give me a lesson in English and arithmetic, and showed me the way of booking and keeping accounts of cash received and laid out By way of relaxation we talked of astronomy and the bright constellations with which I had made acquaintance during the fine nights we spent on the Postwagen travelling through Holland.
The first floor, which was furnished in the newest and most handsome style, my brother kept for himself. The front room containing the harpsichord was always in order to receive his musical friends and scholars at little private concerts or rehearsals Sundays I received a sum for the weekly expenses, of which my housekeeping book written in English showed the amount laid out, and my purse the remaining cash. My brother Alex. But all attempts to introduce any order in our little household proved vain, owing to the servant my brother then had — a hot-headed old Welshwoman.
And what still further increased my difficulty was, that my brother's time was entirely taken up with business, so that I only saw him at meals. Breakfast was at 7 o'clock or before much too early for me , — who would rather have remained up all night than be obliged to rise at so early an hour I had to struggle against heimwehe home sickness and low spirits, and to answer my sister's melancholy letters on the death of her husband, by which she became a widow with six children.
I knew too little English to derive any consolation from the society of those who were about me, so that, dinner-time excepted, I was entirely left to myself. Introductions to her brother's scholars led to occasional evening parties, where her voice was in demand as well for single songs as to take part in duets and glees, and one of these ladies, Mrs.
Colebrook, invited her to go to London on a visit. This visit was prolonged for several weeks owing to the deep snow, which rendered the roads impassable. The Duchess of Ancaster is said to have offered any sum to have a passage cut near Devizes, but without success, her Grace was in consequence unable to be present on the 18th January, when the Queen's birthday was kept. Operas, plays, auctions, and all the usual amusements of the town, gave Miss Herschel a glimpse of the gay world; but the expense of dress and chairmen troubled her spirits too much to allow of her finding pleasure in these dissipations; and although Mrs.
Colebrook is allowed to be both "learned and clever," her society does not appear to have contributed much more to her happiness than that of some younger ladies whose companionship was offered, but whose visits she did not encourage, because, as she bluntly explains, she "thought them very little better than idiots. There being in one of the shops a two and a half foot Gregorian telescope to be let, it was for some time taken in requisition, and served not only for viewing the heavens but for making experiments on its construction It soon appeared that my brother was not contented with knowing what former observers had seen, for he began to contrive a telescope eighteen or twenty feet long I believe after Huyghen's description I was much hindered in my musical practice by my help being continually wanted in the execution of the various contrivances, and I had to amuse myself with making the tube of pasteboard for the glasses which were to arrive from London, for at that time no optician had settled at Bath.
But when all was finished, no one besides my brother could get a glimpse of Jupiter or Saturn, for the great length of the tube would not allow it to be kept in a straight line. This difficulty, however, was soon removed by substituting tin tubes My brother wrote to inquire the price of a reflecting mirror for I believe a five or six foot telescope. The answer was, there were none of so large a size, but a person offered to make one at a price much above what my brother thought proper to give At the same time music durst not lie entirely dormant during the summer, and my brother had frequent rehearsals at home, where Miss Farinelli, an Italian singer, was met by several of the principal performers he had engaged for the winter concerts Sometimes, in the absence of Fisher, he gave a concerto on the oboe, or a sonata on the harpsichord; and the solos on the violoncello of my brother Alexander were divine!
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He also took great delight in a choir of singers who performed the cathedral service at the Octagon Chapel, for whom he composed many excellent anthems, chants, and psalm tunes. But my brother William was soon brought back fainting by Alex with the loss of one of his finger-nails. This happened in the winter of , at a house situated near Walcot turnpike, to which my brother had moved at midsummer, On a grass plot behind the house preparation was immediately made for erecting a twenty-foot telescope, for which, among seven and ten foot mirrors then in hand, one of twelve foot was preparing; this house offered more room for workshops, and a place on the roof for observing.
For my time was so much taken up with copying music and practising, besides attendance on my brother when polishing, since by way of keeping him alive I was constantly obliged to feed him by putting the victuals by bits into his mouth. This was once the case when, in order to finish a seven foot mirror, he had not taken his hands from it for sixteen hours together. I became in time as useful a member of the workshop as a boy might be to his master in the first year of his apprenticeship But as I was to take a part the next year in the oratorios, I had for a whole twelvemonth two lessons per week from Miss Fleming, the celebrated dancing mistress, to drill me for a gentlewoman God knows how she succeeded.
So we lived on without interruption. My brother Alex was absent from Bath for some months every summer, but when at home he took much pleasure to execute some turning or clockmaker's work for his brother. News from Hanover put a sudden stop for a time to all these labours. The mother wrote, in the utmost distress, to say that Dietrich had disappeared from his home, it was supposed with the intention of going to India "with a young idler not older than himself. Meanwhile the sister received a letter to say that Dietrich was laid up very ill at an inn in Wapping. Alexander posted to town, removed him to a lodging, and after a fortnight's nursing, brought him to Bath, where, on his brother William's return, he found him being well cared for by his sister, who kept him to a diet of "roasted apples and barley-water.
The family now moved to a larger house, 19, New King Street, 7 which had a garden behind it, and open space down to the river. It is incidentally mentioned, "that here many interesting discoveries besides the Georgium Sidus were made. In preparation for the oratorios to be performed during Lent, Miss Herschel mentions that she copied the scores of the "Messiah" and "Judas Maccabeus" into parts for an orchestra of nearly one hundred performers, and the vocal parts of "Samson," besides instructing the treble singers, of which she was now herself the first.
On the occasion of her first public appearance, her brother presented her with ten guineas for her dress, —. Palmer the then proprietor of the Bath theatre to be an ornament to the stage. It is evident that had she chosen to persevere, her reputation as a singer would have been secure. The following year she was first singer at the concerts, and was offered an engagement for the Birmingham Festival, which she declined, having resolved only to sing in public where her brother was conductor.
At this time he had repeated proposals from London publishers to bring out some of his vocal compositions, but with the exception of "The Echo" catch, none of them ever appeared in print. Besides the regular Sunday services, concerts and oratorios had to be prepared for and performed in steady routine, sometimes at Bristol also, while the poor prima-donna-housekeeper "hobbled on" with one dishonest servant after another, until Whit Sunday, , when both brother and sister played and sung for the last time, in St.
Margaret's Chapel. On this occasion, their last performance in public, the anthem selected for the day was one of the last compositions, of which mention has been made above. The name of William Herschel was fast becoming famous, as a writer, a discoverer, and the possessor and inventor of instruments of unheard-of power. He was now about to be released from the necessity of devoting the time to music which he was eager to give to astronomical science.
Blagden, and Dr. With the latter he was engaged in a long conversation, which to me sounded like quarrelling, and the first words my brother said after he was gone was: 'That is a devil of a fellow. I suppose their names were not known, or were forgotten; for it was not till the year or that a memorandum of the names of visitors was thought of My brother applied himself to perfect his mirrors, erecting in his garden a stand for his twenty-foot telescope; many trials were necessary before the required motions for such an unwieldy machine could be contrived.
In short, I saw nothing else and heard nothing else talked of but about these things when my brothers were together. Alex was always very alert, assisting when anything new was going forward, but he wanted perseverance, and never liked to confine himself at home for many hours together. Among them was one by Mr. Michel and a catalogue of Christian Mayer in Latin, which kept me employed when my brother was at the telescope at night.
Since the discovery of the Georgium Sidus [March 13, ], I believe few men of learning or consequence left Bath before they had seen and conversed with its discoverer, and thought themselves fortunate in finding him at home on their repeated visits. Sir William Watson 9 was almost an intimate, for hardly a day passed but he had something to communicate from the letters which he received from Sir Joseph Banks and other members of the Royal Society, from which it appeared that my brother was expected in town to receive the gold medal.
The end of November was the most precarious season for absenting himself. But Sir William went with him, and it was arranged so that they set out with the diligence at night, and by that means his absence did not last above three or four days, when my brother returned alone, Sir William remaining with his father. He lost considerably by this arrangement. But, though at times much harassed with business, the mirror for the thirty-foot reflector was never out of his mind, and if a minute could but be spared in going from one scholar to another, or giving one the slip, he called at home to see how the men went on with the furnace, which was built in a room below, even with the garden.
It was an endless piece of work, and served me for many an hour's exercise; and Alex frequently took his turn at it, for we were all eager to do something towards the great undertaking. Even Sir William Watson would sometimes take the pestle from me when he found me in the work-room, where he expected to find his friend, in whose concerns he took so much interest that he felt much disappointed at not being allowed to pay for the metal.
But I do not think my brother ever accepted pecuniary assistance from any one of his friends, and on this occasion he declined the offer by saying it was paid for already. James's, when in town. Colonel Walsh, in particular, informed my brother that from a conversation he had had with His Majesty, it appeared that in the spring he was to come with his seven foot telescope to the King. My poor brother fell, exhausted with heat and exertion, on a heap of brickbats.
Before the second casting was attempted, everything which could ensure success had been attended to, and a very perfect metal was found in the mould, which had cracked in the cooling. For one morning in Passion week, as Sir William Watson was with my brother, talking about the pending journey to town, my eldest nephew 11 arrived to pay us a visit, and brought the confirmation that his uncle was expected with his instrument in town.
A chaise was at the door to take us to Bristol for a rehearsal in the forenoon, of the 'Messiah,' which was to be performed the same evening. The conductor being still lost in conversation with his friend, was obliged to trust to my poor abilities for filling the music box with the necessary parts for between ninety and one hundred performers. My nephew had travelled all night, but we took him with us, for we had not one night in the week, except Friday, but what was set apart for an oratorio either at Bath or Bristol.
Soon after Easter a new organ being erected in St. James's Church, it was opened with two performances of the 'Messiah;' this again took up some of my brother's time The Tuesday after Whit Sunday, May 8th, my brother left Bath to join Sir William Watson at his father's in Lincoln's Inn Fields, furnished with everything necessary for viewing double stars, of which the first catalogue had just then appeared in the 'Philosophical Transactions. It was during his absence at this time that the three following letters were written and received:—. I have had an audience of His Majesty this morning, and met with a very gracious reception.
I presented him with the drawing of the solar system, and had the honour of explaining it to him and the Queen. My telescope is in three weeks' time to go to Richmond, and meanwhile to be put up at Greenwich, where I shall accordingly carry it to-day. So you see, Lina, that you must not think of seeing me in less than a month. I shall write to Miss Lee myself; and other scholars who inquire for me, you may tell that I cannot wait on them till His Majesty shall be pleased to give me leave to return, or rather to dismiss me, for till then I must attend.
I will also write to Mr. Palmer to acquaint him with it. I am in a great hurry, therefore can write no more at present. Tell Alexander that everything looks very likely as if I were to stay here. The King inquired after him, and after my great speculum. He also gave me leave to come to hear the Griesbachs play at the private concert which he has every evening. My having seen the King need not be kept a secret, but about my staying here it will be best not to say anything, but only that I must remain here till His Majesty has observed the planets with my telescope.
Yesterday I dined with Colonel Walsh, who inquired after you. There were Mr. Aubert and Dr. Maskelyne in public declared his obligations to me for having introduced to them the high powers, for Mr. Aubert has so much succeeded with them that he says he looks down upon , , or with contempt, and immediately begins with He has used very completely, and seen my fine double stars with them.
All my papers are printing, with the postscript and all, and are allowed to be very valuable. You see, Lina, I tell you all these things. You know vanity is not my foible, therefore I need not fear your censure. I pass my time between Greenwich and London agreeably enough, but am rather at a loss for work that I like. Company is not always pleasing, and I would much rather be polishing a speculum. Last Friday I was at the King's concert to hear George play. The King spoke to me as soon as he saw me, and kept me in conversation for half an hour.
He asked George to play a solo-concerto on purpose that I might hear him; and George plays extremely well, is very much improved, and the King likes him very much. These two last nights I have been star-gazing at Greenwich with Dr. Maskelyne and Mr. We have compared our telescopes together, and mine was found very superior to any of the Royal Observatory.
Double stars which they could not see with their instruments I had the pleasure to show them very plainly, and my mechanism is so much approved of that Dr. Maskelyne has already ordered a model to be taken from mine and a stand to be made by it to his reflector. He is, however, now so much out of love with his instrument that he begins to doubt whether it deserves a new stand.
I have had the influenza, but am now quite well again. It lasted only five or six days, and I never was confined with it There is hardly one single person here but what has had it. I am introduced to the best company. Among opticians and astronomers nothing now is talked of but what they call my great discoveries. Let me but get at it again! I will make such telescopes, and see such things — that is, I will endeavour to do so. The letter ends abruptly with this sentence, and only one more was written during this momentous interval.
I have been so much employed that you will not wonder at my not writing sooner. The letter you sent me last Monday came very safe to me. As Dr. Watson has been so good as to acquaint you and Alexander with my situation, I was still more easy in my silence to you. Heberden, M. My instrument gave general satisfaction. The King has very good eyes, and enjoys observations with telescopes exceedingly. This evening, as the King and Queen are gone to Kew, the Princesses were desirous of seeing my telescope, but wanted to know if it was possible to see without going out on the grass, and were much pleased when they heard that my telescope could be carried into any place they liked best to have it.
About 8 o'clock it was moved into the Queen's apartments, and we waited some time in hopes of seeing Jupiter or Saturn. Meanwhile I showed the Princesses, and several other ladies who were present, the speculum, the micrometers, the movements of the telescope, and other things that seemed to excite their curiosity. When the evening appeared to be totally unpromising, I proposed an artificial Saturn as an object, since we could not have the real one. I had beforehand prepared this little piece, as I guessed by the appearance of the weather in the afternoon we should have no stars to look at.
This being accepted with great pleasure, I had the lamps lighted up which illuminated the picture of a Saturn cut out in pasteboard at the bottom of the garden wall. The effect was fine, and so natural that the best astronomer might have been deceived. Their royal highnesses and other ladies seemed to be much pleased with the artifice. I remained in the Queen's apartment with the ladies till about half after ten, when in conversation with them I found them extremely well instructed in every subject that was introduced, and they seemed to be most amiable characters.
To-morrow evening they hope to have better luck, and nothing will give me greater happiness than to be able to show them some of those beautiful objects with which the heavens are so gloriously ornamented. From him we heard that my brother was invited to Greenwich with the telescope, where he was met by a numerous party of astronomical and learned gentlemen, and trials of his instrument were made.
In these letters he complained of being obliged to lead an idle life, having nothing to do but to pass between London and Greenwich. Sir William received many letters which he was so kind as to communicate to us. By these, and from those to Alexander or to me, we learned that the King wished to see the telescope at Windsor. At last a letter, dated July 2, arrived from Therese, and from this and several succeeding ones we gathered that the King would not suffer my brother to return to his profession again, and by his writing several times for a supply of money we could only suppose that he himself was in uncertainty about the time of his return.
In the last week of July my brother came home, and immediately prepared for removing to Datchet, where he had taken a house with a garden and grass-plot annexed, quite suitable for the purpose of an observing-place. Sir Wm. Watson spent nearly the whole time at our house, and he was not the only friend who truly grieved at my brother's going from Bath; or feared his having perhaps agreed to no very advantageous offers; their fears were, in fact, not without reason Sir William Watson was the only one to whom the sum was mentioned, and he exclaimed, "Never bought monarch honour so cheap!
Everything was immediately packed for the removal, and on the 1st of August, when the brothers and sister walked over to Datchet from Slough where the coach passed , they found the waggon, with its precious load of instruments, as well as household furniture, waiting to be unpacked. The new home was a large neglected place, the house in a deplorably ruinous condition, the garden and grounds overgrown with weeds.