In , the water resource per capita of Shanxi Province was Extreme weather conditions and natural disasters have happened more frequently with ever more serious consequences. The threat posed by climate change to ecosystem and socioeconomic development is growing. The coal sector and the power sector are considered the leading industries in Shanxi Province, but they have become major sources of environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
Under this circumstance, the public awareness of environmental protection is growing, putting great simultaneous pressure upon the government and enterprises. The emissions of greenhouse gases incrementally increase background concentrations and the temperature, so over short periods one to two years the alteration may be hard to perceive in our daily lives.
Hence, public awareness of climate change is disappointingly insufficient, so it is not likely that ordinary people will take actions and change their views towards a low-carbon lifestyle. Low-carbon development is not only a requirement but also a necessity in order to transform to a less resource-intensive development model. Prosperity based on natural resources and the benefits of investing in related industries are not shared by other sectors because these industries have a lot of sunk costs with limited correlative effects and low positive externalities.
The scientific and technological support for our low-carbon development and emission reduction is weak. The brain drain and the shortage of top talent exist side by side. The implementation of the low-carbon strategy requires hard work in multiple sectors including industry, agriculture, transportation, construction, science and technology, and education. Since the low-carbon strategy was introduced only in recent years, some agencies are still not fully aware of its significance and urgency.
Innovation in low carbon economy - United Nations University
Emission reduction and climate change are not incorporated into the work of specific departments nor taken into account in the process of making plans. Administrative resources scattered among different governmental agencies are not coordinated to form synergies, thereby undermining the scope and depth of emission reduction measures.
Climate change is a development issue. A low-carbon strategy should be put into practice which considers the economic character of the province and its historical reliance on coal based heavy industries. To meet its low-carbon goals, Shanxi should:. Countries have proposed many different ways and measures to achieve low-carbon development according to their own needs and national realities. For example, The U. As a less developed region, Shanxi needs to ensure economic growth on the one hand while slowing the rate of energy consumption and carbon emission on the other.
So Shanxi should focus on transforming its economic model, which is a more complicated task than just reducing emissions. Shanxi needs to pursue investments in advanced technologies and alternative energy sources. Due to the carbon lock-in effect in the process of economic growth, Shanxi will need to balance its low carbon strategy with its reliance on an economy based on heavy industrialization and accelerated urbanization. The current targets for emission reduction proposed by China will be difficult to achieve. The regional low-carbon development requires significant institutional innovation.
The reduction of the CO 2 emission intensity should be incorporated into the evaluation systems for socio-economic development and the performance of senior officials. Such a system can help to clarify the reduction targets for CO 2 emission per unit of GDP, ensure the fulfillment of these targets, and compel the relevant parties to honor their responsibilities. Shanxi selected the indicators that best reflect its progress in dealing with climate change, thus establishing its own statistics system to collect emission data from the energy sector, industrial production, agriculture, and waste disposal.
Shanxi seeks to make carbon emissions measurable, reportable, and verifiable. China should establish a system that requires key businesses to report their emission data as a precondition to participate in intensified and standardized emission management as well as carbon trading. The central government has released the calculation methods and reporting guidance for companies in 24 industries, including steel, electricity generation, and cement.
The Shanxi government should clarify which companies must report, sort out the reporting platform, and decide on the reporting system. Industries with high energy consumption and high carbon emissions, such as coal, steel, chemical industry, electricity generation, and cement, should submit their reports first. As a market-oriented approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, carbon trading offers an important way to reduce emissions.
Documents such as the Provisional Regulation on Carbon Trading and the drafted Regulation on National Carbon Trading offer guidance to the development of the market. The nationwide carbon trading system is scheduled to be initiated in Companies with annual emissions of over 26, tons in six industries—namely electricity, metallurgy, non-ferrous metals, building materials, chemical industry, and aviation services—are included. The total trade volume could be as large as 3 to 4 billion tons of greenhouse gases. The establishment of the national carbon trading market will exert influence on carbon-intensive industries such as electricity, steel, non-ferrous metals, chemical industry, building materials, coal, and many others.
China established a target to peak its CO 2 emissions around , which is of great significance to the development of a low-carbon economy. Shanxi should announce its own peak emissions. It should consider dividing the goal into smaller targets for different stages and distribute emission quotas among different regions and industries accordingly. Based on the national emission reduction targets, Shanxi can develop targets of total emission control for every year and make reduction plans annually. A licensing system should be established to regulate what greenhouse gases can be discharged into the atmosphere and which industries should be covered in order to improve the efficiency of programs and policies to meet the emission quotas.
Shanxi needs to establish an assessment and accreditation system for carbon emissions for specific investment projects. By doing that, the province can control and regulate the initiation of projects with high levels of carbon and conventional pollution and high energy consumption. According to these regulations, China will establish a unified Certification institution for energy conservation and low-carbon products to encourage people to buy energy efficient products.
Pilot programs should be carried out for major industries or companies. Assessing the impacts of the emission quotas and energy consumption limits on major carbon-intensive industries, such as electricity, steel, chemical industry, cement, building materials, and transportation is an important step toward a low-carbon future. In the face of tight resource supply, severe environmental degradation, deterioration of the ecosystem, and greater economic volatility, low-carbon development may be the best economic strategy going forward.
Industrial upgrading and restructuring can drive low-carbon development.
Priority should be given to the efficient, clean, and low-carbon utilization of coal, supported by the low-carbon transformation of traditional coal-based industries such as electricity, coke, and chemicals. Further expansion of industries with high carbon emissions should be limited and their share in the economy should be reduced so as to make room for low-carbon industries with advanced technologies and high added value.
When there is little opportunity for potential reduction through technologies, Shanxi should rely on the market, but with increased government support, so as to boost the development of modern service industries. These emerging strategic industries will require initial government support—such as high-end equipment, manufacturing, new materials, and new energy sources, including renewables.
Shanxi lags behind developed regions in terms of industrial scale, technological innovation, and competitiveness in the market. To overcome this deficit in human and financial capital, Shanxi should provide more targeted institutional incentives. In the context of a global effort to deal with climate change, the global energy system is experiencing tremendous transformations. The carbon-intensive energy system based on fossil fuels is now being replaced by a low-carbon system based on new energy sources and renewable energy.
Such a change can significantly reduce the carbon intensity and CO 2 emission of electricity generation via fossil fuels. Clean and efficient utilization of coal, the exploration of new energy sources, and changing the ways we use energy can play central roles in low-carbon development. Shanxi should invest in new technology research, equipment development, and policy support for the development of clean coal and new energy sources as well as ensuring the clean and efficient use of coal in key industries.
Shanxi can tap investments in non-fossil fuels, including solar, wind, hydro energy, biomass, and geothermal energy, boosting their share of primary energy consumption. Distributed energy resources, combined cooling, heating and power CCHP , and a smart grid can be further developed to transform the way Shanxi uses and produces energy. The production, transmission and sale of CBM should be coordinated and proper arrangements should be made for natural gas pipelines, storage technologies, and transportation facilities. Comprehensive and more efficient use of CBM should be promoted so as to make natural gas—and not coal—the primary fuel in Shanxi.
Innovation drives development and offers support to efforts to reduce emissions in the traditional energy sector. Shanxi should focus on the development of clean coal and boost the technologies required for large scale CBM or other non-traditional natural gas extraction. As for renewable energy, research should focus on approaches that are cost-effective and suitable for large-scale production: solar energy, solar building integration, fuel cell technologies, hydroelectricity, biomass, and methane. New studies should be conducted on the energy cascade use, residue heat and energy, alternative fuel and raw materials, and CCUS in industries with high carbon emissions such as coal, electricity, metallurgy, chemical industry, and building materials.
Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage CCUS is a new technology to control greenhouse gas emissions that could be of strategic importance. Demonstrations of CCUS can help the province deal with the existing technological gap. Shanxi should expand international cooperation on CCUS and work with experts from around the world to explore ways to lower the cost. Therefore, this study compensates for the shortcomings of previous studies on the lack of coordination of carbon emissions and industrial development levels and expands the measurement field of economic development coordination.
Coordinated development of regional industries means that various industries achieve interdependence, orderly operation, virtuous circle and common progress of inter-regional industries through rational division of labor and mutual cooperation. When the development between industries is uneven and the gap widens, it indicates the development of the industry.
Overall coordination is reduced. The coordination degree of industrial economy from the perspective of carbon emissions is an extension of the coordination degree between economy and environment, thus, this paper defines it as a quantitative description of the degree of coupling between human carbon emissions in a certain stage of development i. In China, primary, secondary and tertiary economic sectors, have been the backbone for national and regional economic development and are also the main sources of carbon emissions [ 35 , 43 , 44 , 45 ].
Calculating the coordination of industrial economic development from the perspective of carbon emissions is not only conducive to promoting the optimization and adjustment of regional industrial structure, promoting the upgrading of industrial energy structure but also conducive to formulating low-carbon development policies within the industry and identifying key areas for the development of low-carbon industries.
The economics of climate change in China
Henan Province, as a major agricultural province, has the largest population and the increasing GDP. In recent years, grain production has enabled rapid social and economic development with convenient transportation. Henan has become an attractive hut for economic activities and subsequently has been faced with continuous population growth, while striving to maintain its status as a large agricultural province.
In this context, its primary concern is to optimize its industrial structure and thus to improve economic and environmental benefits [ 33 ]. Carbon dioxide, as the primary greenhouse gas, is also the by-product of economic development, population growth and industrialization [ 14 , 46 , 47 ]. Curbing carbon emissions would be beneficial to maintain a favorable ecological environment; nevertheless, it would likely hinder the economic development. Thus, maintaining the equilibrium between curbing emissions and economic growth is a critical issue. However, it is challenging to maintain the equilibrium in China as there are distinctive disparities in economy among different regions.
It requires localized strategies, which consider both local economy and environment, for curbing emissions and sustain economic growth simultaneously. The nation prospects to reduce the energy consumption per unit of GDP by 40 to 50 percent in , compared with the one in Henan Province has been in a dilemma of energy conservation and higher emission demand due to economic growth. In the context of growing population and maintaining large agricultural production in Henan Province, optimizing and adjusting economic structure in Henan for better economic efficiency and greater environmental benefits, have become the primary concern.
Based on the differentiated calculation of carbon emission from the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, this study discusses the spatiotemporal differences of carbon emissions in Henan Province. Henan Province is located in the east-central China, which is also the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River region, with a land area of , square kilometers. The GDP proportion of the three major economic sectors is The GDP per capita is 39, yuan.
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The area of arable land in Henan Province is 8. However, urbanization and industrialization have intensified, especially since Henan being identified as part of the Central Plains Economic Zone. The rapid economic development has introduced great challenges and threats to the local ecological environment. A sustainable development among the economy, society and environment with good coordination is a critical issue in Henan Province. The industrial structure of this study can be divided into the primary sector including the crop-plantation, animal husbandry and fishery , the secondary sector including the industrial production sectors , the tertiary sector including the service sector.
The data relate to carbon emission from the primary sector in Henan Province can be explained as three categories: 1 Agricultural capital investment, which includes fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural film, irrigation area and crop acreage. Chemical fertilizers can be further segmented into nitrogen fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers and potash fertilizers.
The nitrogen fertilizer is derived by calculation of indirect carbon emissions and the direct carbon emissions during its application. The area of fishery industry is mainly the fish farming areas that were used to calculate the carbon emissions during the aquaculture process. Carbon emissions in the secondary and tertiary sectors were primarily estimated by the energy consumptions in the secondary and tertiary sectors. The types of energy consumption mainly include raw coal, coke, crude oil, diesel oil and fuel oil.
The IPCC energy consumption carbon emission calculation coefficient was combined with the actual situation of local energy use in China and Henan Province. These were then used to estimate the carbon emissions from the secondary and the tertiary sectors in Henan Province. Agricultural capital investment is the main source of carbon emissions in the agricultural sector [ 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ]. The agricultural capital investment in this paper is presented as two categories: 1 the direct and indirect carbon emissions caused by chemical fertilizers nitrogen fertilizers, phosphate fertilizers, potash fertilizers , pesticides, agricultural films and other agricultural chemicals; 2 the indirect carbon emissions resulting from agricultural irrigation and agricultural daily farming.
Direct and indirect carbon emission coefficients are selected based on previous studies. Both indirect carbon emissions released in the process of fertilizer application and the direct carbon emissions caused by its application are taken into account [ 59 ]. According to the existing research results [ 62 , 63 ], the nitrogen to carbon conversion coefficient and the direct carbon emission coefficient of nitrogen fertilizers in Henan Province are Crop straw is an inevitable subsidiary product in the agricultural production process with a large production volume.
The straw is mainly disposed by combustion and its combustion process is still an important carbon source from agricultural activities. Based on the previous research results [ 64 , 65 , 66 ], the analysis summarizes the carbon emission-related coefficients of straw combustion for various crops in Henan Province see Table 2. The combustion of crop straw is divided into two parts: power generation combustion 3. In terms of livestock, carbon emissions from livestock farming are mainly in the form of animal intestinal fermentation CH 4 emissions and fecal CH 4 , N 2 O emissions.
According to prior research results [ 62 , 63 , 67 , 68 ], the CH 4 emission coefficient of intestinal fermentation and the CH 4 and N 2 O emission coefficients of fecal management Table 3 were used to calculate the carbon emissions from livestock in Henan Province. Here, E H is the total carbon emission from livestock and A i represents one of the many different livestock. Among them, there is 6. Considering the entire life cycle of a fishery, the carbon emissions in the aquaculture process are mainly due to the indirect carbon emissions from oxygenation in fishponds and water changing in fish tanks.
According to earlier studies [ 69 ], considering that the main fishery in Henan Province engages in freshwater aquaculture, the carbon emission can be calculated using the formula:. Therefore, the total carbon emissions Ec from the primary economic sector in Henan Province can be expressed as:. The carbon emission of the secondary and tertiary economic sectors was accompanied by the production and consumption of energy. Therefore, the carbon emission estimation model which was based on energy consumption was used to estimate the carbon emissions generated by the secondary and tertiary economic sectors.
According to the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories [ 70 ] prepared by the IPCC, the carbon emissions calculation method can be divided into total energy consumption, energy balance and terminal energy consumption. Derived from the industrial energy consumption combined with the energy-related carbon emission indicators in Henan Province, the carbon emissions from these sectors were estimated. This assessment was done using the provisions of the economic sectors with the secondary sector mainly consisting of industrial energy consumption and the tertiary sector incorporating transportation, warehousing, postal services, wholesale and retail, accommodation and catering , with reference to former research [ 71 , 72 , 73 ] and by implementing the IPCC recommended carbon emissions calculation guidelines [ 62 ].
Here, E T denotes the carbon emissions from the secondary and tertiary economic sectors of Henan Province, i represents different types of energy sources, E M i represents the total consumption of the i -th energy source, L C V i represents the low combustion value of the i -class energy, C F i denotes the carbon emission coefficient of the i -th energy source and O i denotes the combustion oxidation rate of the i -th energy source see Table 4.
The study of economic-environmental coordination has a long history and such research mainly estimates the relationship between the economic and environmental development from the perspective of the economic development and ecological environment bearing capacity. This study analyzes the development coordination degree of the industry carbon emissions from the primary, secondary and the tertiary sectors and the economy the GDP from the primary, secondary and the tertiary sectors from the carbon emission point of view and puts forth a new coordination degree measurement method based on the previous research [ 74 ].
Coordination coefficient can reflect the proportional relationship between industrial structure and carbon emission structure development as a whole and the value range is 0,1. When the coordination coefficient is 0, it indicates that the coordination between industrial structure and carbon emission structure is poor; when the coordination coefficient is 1, it indicates that the two have a good proportional structure, indicating that the industrial structure is similar to the carbon emission structure, that is, the industrial structure has a similar development law to carbon emission structure.
Industrial activity is one of the main sources of carbon emissions [ 14 , 43 , 44 ], the uncertainty of carbon emission estimation is an important issue in this field, which mainly reflects the two aspects of calculation method and carbon emission factor selection. On the basis of selecting the energy consumption as the calculation method of carbon emission, the selection of carbon emission factors makes the total amount of regional carbon emissions greatly different, which is related to the regional energy nature [ 7 , 75 ].
Compare the IPCC with the carbon emission factors of the eight energy sources in this study, where the carbon dioxide emissions per kilogram of crude coal differ by 0. Taking the calculation of the total carbon consumption of energy consumption in Henan Province in as an example, the total carbon emission estimated by the IPCC carbon emission coefficient is The difference is mainly due to lower heating value, carbon content and Oxidation rate.
Different choices indicate that the uncertainty of carbon emission factors will have an important impact on the total carbon emissions [ 7 , 75 ]. Selecting the carbon emission coefficient calculated by this study to estimate the carbon emissions of energy consumption will be able to scientifically and accurately assess the actual situation of carbon emissions from energy consumption in Henan Province and is more conducive to measuring the industrial coordination degree from the perspective of carbon emission.
Carbon emissions in three major economic sectors in Henan Province during — are illustrated in Figure 2. It shows that both total carbon emissions and the carbon emissions only in the secondary sector tended to increase first until around and then followed by a declining trend. The total carbon emissions increased from The carbon emissions in the secondary sector increased from Carbon emissions in the tertiary sector presented a gradual increasing trend over the study period.
It increased from 4. Interestingly, carbon emission in the primary sector tended to be decreasing gradually, from The percentage contribution of the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors towards the total carbon emissions in Henan Province were It indicates that the secondary sector, which contributes the most, is the main source of carbon emissions in Henan Province.
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Variation of carbon emissions over time from three major economic sectors in Henan Province during — Figure 3 shows the changes in Henan Province carbon emission and its influencing factors. In , China accounted for Compared with , the growth rate of carbon emissions in China and Henan Province was 1. The rate of decline was significantly higher than that of — and the change in carbon emissions was consistent with the primary and secondary economic sector.
Variation of carbon emissions over time from three major economic sectors in Henan Province in comparison to China and the World during — From to , the spatial distribution pattern of carbon emissions in the primary sector had higher emissions in the southeast and lower emissions in the northwest see Figure 4. Among them, the prefecture-level cities with higher carbon emission contributions are Nanyang City, Zhoukou City, Zhumadian City, Shangqiu City and Xinyang City, which respectively account for Other prefecture-level cities with lesser carbon emissions are Jiyuan City, Hebi City and Sanmenxia City, which respectively account for 0.
They combine together play a decisive role in the agricultural development of Henan Province. The crop yield from these five cities accounts for more than Their animal farms account for about Concurrent to the high yield of agricultural crops, large amounts of fertilizer, pesticide, machinery and other agricultural production inputs are required.
Additionally, high carbon emissions brought about by the respiration and excrement of large livestock numbers, make these five agricultural cities major contributors to primary sector carbon emissions. During —, except for Xinyang City and Hebi City, where the primary sector carbon emissions showed an overall rising trend, the primary sector carbon emissions in the other prefecture-level cities showed an overall declining trend.
Among them, the primary sector carbon emissions in Xinyang City increased from 1. In Hebi City, the primary sector carbon emissions increased from , tons in to , tons in , equal to an increase of 1. The city with most significant reduction in primary sector carbon emissions was Nanyang City, with a The prefecture-level city with the next significant reduction in primary sector carbon emissions is Pingdingshan City, where the primary sector carbon emissions reduced from 1. The main reasons leading to the differences in carbon emissions from the primary sector in these prefecture-level cities, is the increase in the irrigated area and crop acreage of Xinyang City and a smaller increase in the irrigated area of Nanyang City due to a significantly decreased crop seeded acreage.
Spatial differences in carbon emissions from the primary sector in Henan Province during — Carbon emissions in the secondary sector in Henan Province between and showed varied spatial patterns Figure 5. There were higher emissions in the northwest and lower in the southeast region. Here, the prefecture-level cities with higher secondary sector carbon emissions were Pingdingshan City, Luoyang City, Zhengzhou City and Anyang City, which respectively accounted for This distribution is closely related to the layout of the industrial development.
The region along the Longhai and northern Henan is the core area of industrial development in Henan Province. The aforementioned cities are the main cities in this region. Their secondary sector energy consumption accounts for This large energy consumption leads to higher carbon emissions. During —, apart from Jiaozuo City, Zhoukou City, Xuchang City and Anyang City, the carbon emissions in the secondary sector in the other cities increased gradually.
The prefecture-level cities with a higher percentage increase in the carbon emissions from the secondary sector are Sanmenxia City, Kaifeng City, Pingdingshan City and Zhumadian City, where the emissions increased from 5. This corresponds to an increase of The prefecture-level city with the largest reduction percentage in secondary sector carbon emissions is Zhoukou City, where the emissions reduced from 1. The city with the second largest percentage reduction is Jiaozuo City, where the secondary sector carbon emissions reduced from This reduction is mainly due to the rise in secondary sector production value in Zhoukou City and Jiaozuo City between and , however as the secondary sector energy consumption is seen to decrease with year, it indicates that the energy efficiency of the secondary sector in Zhoukou City and Jiaozuo City has continued to increase.
Spatial differences in carbon emissions from the secondary sector in Henan Province during — The spatial distribution of carbon emissions in the tertiary sector in Henan Province is shown in Figure 6. Between and , the carbon emissions from this sector show an overall pattern of being higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest. Among the prefecture-level cities, those with the largest carbon emissions from the tertiary sector are Nanyang City, Zhoukou City and Zhengzhou City, whose emissions account for This is due to the relatively higher energy consumption by the tertiary sector in these cities.
Nanyang City is a historical, cultural and regionally central city in the Yu Shan-E area, its tourism and transportation are highly developed. It assumes that the tourism and transportation have contributed to the increase of carbon emission in its tertiary sector. Its tertiary sectors, such as financial and service economy, are highly developed. They could be contributing to the high carbon emissions in the city. Zhoukou City is an important production base for grain, cotton, oil, meat and tobacco and has developed an active large-scale wholesale agricultural products market, which is dependent on the primary sector.
Its carbon emissions have also increased accordingly. From to , the carbon emissions from the tertiary sector in the various prefecture-level cities of Henan Province have increased annually. Of these, those with a higher increase in carbon emissions from the tertiary sector were Zhengzhou City, Hebi City and Jiyuan City, with increases from , tons, 67, tons and 31, tons in to 1. The respondents were from Chinese cities. A total of 2, residents from 20 cities with the highest LOGIC rating were selected for the survey. Respondents aged between 18 and 55 were surveyed online, while the rest aged between 56 and 70 were interviewed offline.
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