Magic may be taught by jinn and demons p. Interestingly enough, this notion reflects the European idea of associating magic with the magi. She appears to the Greeks in the form of a fire-emitting black dragon, and attempts to drive them away from the temple.
Magic in the Narrative Oral Tradition. The description of magic and magicians in the repertoire of storytellers of the classical period must have been rather elaborate. Evidently this rule was so well known that when Samak meets a beautiful sorceress, he is amazed that she has not lost her looks II, pp. Sorcerers live in a variety of places. Some live in faraway valleys V, p. Their powers are enormous. They can transform themselves into many shapes I, p. Often they exert total control over their employers.
For instance, the nursemaid to the daughter of the king of China does virtually as she pleases; and the king confesses to his helplessness in her hands I, p. However, keeping this powerful counter-charm is not easy. Those who know it may forget it if they behave impiously or if they eat improperly slaughtered animals V, p. There are a number of other mysterious names and words that sorcerers may use in casting their spells.
One character extracts these names from the daughter of a skillful magician by means of torture V, pp. Less commonly, magicians may blow their spells on a fistful of dirt II, p. Magic may be taught to anyone who is willing to learn it III, pp. In one instance, when Samak is taught two charms, one for dispelling snakes and another for calling them forth, he has to jot down the incantations lest he forgets them III, pp. Occasionally, the apprentice may prove more skillful than the teacher, and may overcome her II, p.
The magical power of a sorcerer or the key to an enchantment may be kept in an external object. The destruction of that object would rob the witch of her powers, and break the spell V, pp. Shooting at the banner with arrows would destroy its magic. Alternatively, they may use a twig as the means of practicing their craft V, p.
These instruments are reminiscent of the magic wand or rod in the European folk tradition. Apparently, most magicians employed some tool that helped them cast their spells.
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Magicians know that if they use a talisman in bewitching someone their magic may be reversed when the talisman is destroyed. Some charms have special names. Sorcerers ride into battle on bizarre mounts with bodies made up from various parts of a number of animals e. Often the feet of these mounts resemble heads of dogs, and both the mounts and the witches can emit fire from their various weapons and body parts e.
These fires however, may be snuffed out by conventional methods, such as pouring dirt on them IV, pp. Aside from their fiery weapons, witches of the popular oral tradition may attack by means of producing storms and clouds that rain very large hailstones on their victims. Usually, killing the sorcerer responsible for the storm puts an end to it II, p.
When the magician may not be accessible to those who seek to kill him, powerful counter-charms, often received from a saintly donor figure, can either cancel his magic, or turn it against him. The magic of a good witch may also be useful in eliminating that of a bad sorcerer II, pp. Captured sorcerers could be subjected to various harsh methods of interrogation I, p.
Occasionally witches would repent and give up magic through the intersession of a saint, who would blow his own incantation upon them, thus making them forget all of their black arts III p.
Purportedly, reformed witches would no longer practice their craft even to help their friends and family III, p. Magic in Persian Folk Practice. Three types of magic may be distinguished in Persian folk practice. These are: curative, preventative, and supplicatory. Krappe, p. Infants who appear to be too fat or limp are thought to lack some of their vertebrae.
When a patient who suffers from having been stung by a scorpion is treated by iron or the recitation of certain magical charm Faqihi, p.
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In Khorasan a pregnant woman who needs to scratch her abdomen does not use her fingers to relieve the itching. Placing a bleached decorated skull of a donkey into a well in order to prevent draught is another example of this type of magic Donaldson, p.
The Magic of the Horse Shoe: With Other Folklore Notes
Hand, , pp. Later these items were buried in an old cemetery. Some would smear the bodies of their co-wives havu with lizard-oil in order to make her undesirable to their shared husband. Magical formulae that protect against noxious insects e. Richard J.
McCarthy, Beirut, Hanaway, Jr. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Magic , London, Idem, Amulets and Superstitions , 1st ed. London, ; repr.
Horseshoes in Southern Witchcraft - Cursed Horseshoes
New York, Kraye, W. Ryan, and C. Schmitt, eds. Norman F. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Mary Douglas, ed. A Monographs 9, London, Dundes, ed. Evans-Pritchard, Witchcraft, oracles, and magic among the Azande , Oxford, Toufic Fahd, La Divination arabe , Strasbourg, , 2nd. Eliade, ed. James G. Gaster, New York, Arberry, London, Charles G. James Hastings, Edinburgh, , pp. Fawi, 2 vols. Sullivan, Hidden truths: magic, alchemy and the occult , New York and London, Tehran, Dorson, Chicago, , pp.
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